George Orwell was born Eric Arthur Blair, in India in 1903. He was educated in England and spent the early years of his writing career in Paris. He became known as an essayist with the likes of Down and Out in London and Paris, before his first novel was published in 1934. Orwell was a respected journalist and critic, working for various magazines and the BBC, before writing his bestselling novella Animal Farm in 1945. It made Orwell's name and ensured his literary legacy. He died in 1950.