Populism is on the rise in Europe and the Americas. Scholars increasingly understand populist forces in terms of their ideas or discourse, one that envisions a cosmic struggle between the will of the common people and a conspiring elite. In this volume, we advance populism scholarship by proposing a causal theory and methodological guidelines - a research program - based on this ideational approach. This program argues that populism exists as a set of widespread attitudes among ordinary citizens, and that these attitudes lie dormant until activated by weak democratic governance and policy failure. It offers methodological guidelines for scholars seeking to measure populist ideas and test their effects. And, to ground the program empirically, it tests this theory at multiple levels of analysis using original data on populist discourse across European and US party systems; case studies of populist forces in Europe, Latin America, and the US; survey data from Europe and Latin America; and experiments in Chile, the US, and the UK. The result is a truly systematic, comparative approach that helps answer questions about the causes and effects of populism.
Introduction: the ideational approach Kirk A. Hawkins, Brigham Young University Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser, Diego Portales University Part I - MEASURING POPULIST IDEAS Chapter 1 - Textual analysis: big data approaches Kirk A. Hawkins, Brigham Young University Bruno Castanho Silva, University of Cologne Chapter 2 - Textual analysis: the UK party system Luke March, University of Edinburgh Chapter 3 - Textual analysis: an inclusive approach in Croatia Marijana Grbesa, University of Zagreb Berto Salaj, University of Zagreb Chapter 4 - Expert surveys Nina Wiesehomeier, IE University Chapter 5 - Elite surveys Ioannis Andreadis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Saskia P. Ruth, German Institute of Global and Area Studies Chapter 6 - Public opinion surveys: evaluating existing measures Steven M. Van Hauwaert, University of Mainz Christian H. Schimpf, University of Mannheim Flavio Azevedo, Cologne University Chapter 7 - Public opinion surveys: a new measure Bruno Castanho Silva, University of Cologne Ioannis Andreadis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Eva Anduiza, Autonomous University of Barcelona Nebojsa Blanusa, University of Zagreb Yazmin Morlet Corti, National Autonomous University of Mexico Gisela Delfino, Argentine Catholic University and National Scientific and Technical Research Council, Argentina Guillem Rico, Autonomous University of Barcelona Saskia P. Ruth, University of Zurich, NCCR Democracy Bram Spruyt, Free University of Brussels Marco Steenbergen, University of Zurich Levente Littvay, European Consortium for Political Research Part II - TESTING THE IDEATIONAL THEORY Chapter 8 - Populist mobilization across time and space Hans-Georg Betz, University of Zurich Chapter 9 - Populist success in Latin America and Western Europe: ideational and party-system-centered rxplanations Simon Bornschier, University of Zurich Chapter 10 - Populist voting in Chile, Greece, Spain, and Bolivia Ioannis Andreadis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Kirk A. Hawkins, Brigham Young University Ivan Llamazares, University of Salamanca Matthew M. Singer, University of Connecticut Chapter 11 - Populist success: a qualitative comparative analysis Bruno Castanho Silva, University of Cologne Chapter 12 - Populism in Spain: the role of ideational change in Podemos Margarita Gomez-Reino, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia Ivan Llamazares Valduvieco, University of Salamanca Chapter 13 - Populism in Venezuela: the role of the opposition Sahar Abi-Hassan, Boston University Chapter 14 - Populism in Belgium: the mobilization of the body anti-politic Koen Abts, Institute of Social and Political Opinion Research Thierry Kochuyt, Nottingham Trent Univeristy Stijn van Kessel, Queen Mary University of London Chapter 15 - Populism in the US: the evolution of the Trump constituency Wendy Rahn, University of Minnesota Chapter 16 - Activating populist attitudes: the role of corruption Ethan C. Busby, Northwestern University David Doyle, University of Oxford Kirk A. Hawkins, Brigham Young University Nina Wiesehomeier, IE University Chapter 17 - Populist voters: the role of authoritarianism and ideology Rosario Aguilar, Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas (CIDE). Ryan E. Carlin, Georgia State University Conclusion Ryan E. Carlin, Georgia State University Kirk A. Hawkins, Brigham Young University Levente Littvay, European Consortium for Political Research Jennifer McCoy, Georgia State University Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser, Diego Portales University
Kirk A. Hawkins, Brigham Young University, USA. Ryan E. Carlin, Georgia State University, USA. Levente Littvay, Central European University, Hungary. Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser, Universidad Diego Portales, Chile.
Reviews for The Ideational Approach to Populism: Concept, Theory, and Analysis
This pioneering volume is the first collection of empirical, mostly comparative, studies of populism at the elite and mass level, which is truly grounded in the increasingly dominant ideational approach. It should be required reading for both the few old and the many new scholars of populism. Cas Mudde, Stanley Wade Shelton UGAF Professor, University of Georgia, USA This volume is sure to be a landmark in the comparative study of populism. It brings together a team of scholars who share an ideational approach to the study of populism, and it demonstrates how this approach lends itself to a wide range of methodological tools-- both quantitative and qualitative-- to empirically analyze populist ideas in elite political discourse and mass beliefs. In so doing, it brings much-needed analytical coherence to a field of study where scholars too often disagree on fundamental concepts and speak past one another. Kenneth M. Roberts, Richard J. Schwartz Professor, Cornell University, USA The Ideational Approach to Populism is a timely and compelling book that takes seriously the ideology and appeals of populist movements. Its rigorous and compelling analyses of populism range from Latin American party manifestoes, to episodes of historical populist mobilization in Europe, to experimental evidence regarding the role of corruption as a catalyst for populist support. The result is a rich and multi-faceted volume that is a must-read for scholars of populism-and for others intrigued by the phenomenon. Anna Grzymala-Busse, Michelle and Kevin Douglass Professor, Political Science, Stanford, USA.