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A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75

Paul-Alain Beaulieu

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Blackwell Publishing
05 June 2018
Provides a new narrative history of the ancient world, from the beginnings of civilization in the ancient Near East and Egypt to the fall of Constantinople

Written by an expert in the field, this book presents a narrative history of Babylon from the time of its First Dynasty (1880-1595) until the last centuries of the city’s existence during the Hellenistic and Parthian periods (ca. 331-75 AD). Unlike other texts on Ancient Near Eastern and Mesopotamian history, it offers a unique focus on Babylon and Babylonia, while still providing readers with an awareness of the interaction with other states and peoples. Organized chronologically, it places the various socio-economic and cultural developments and institutions in their historical context. The book also gives religious and intellectual developments more respectable coverage than books that have come before it.

A History of Babylon, 2200 BC – AD 75 teaches readers about the most important phase in the development of Mesopotamian culture. The book offers in-depth chapter coverage on the Sumero-Addadian Background, the rise of Babylon, the decline of the first dynasty, Kassite ascendancy, the second dynasty of Isin, Arameans and Chaldeans, the Assyrian century, the imperial heyday, and Babylon under foreign rule.

    Focuses on Babylon and Babylonia
    Written by a highly regarded Assyriologist
    Part of the very successful Histories of the Ancient World series
    An excellent resource for students, instructors, and scholars

A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75 is a profound text that will be ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses on Ancient Near Eastern and Mesopotamian history and scholars of the subject.
By:   Paul-Alain Beaulieu
Imprint:   Blackwell Publishing
Country of Publication:   United Kingdom
Dimensions:   Height: 256mm,  Width: 170mm,  Spine: 15mm
Weight:   466g
ISBN:   9781405188982
ISBN 10:   1405188987
Series:   Blackwell History of the Ancient World
Pages:   312
Publication Date:   05 June 2018
Audience:   Professional and scholarly ,  Undergraduate
Format:   Paperback
Publisher's Status:   Active
List of Illustrations xii List of Tables xiv List of Maps xvi Preface xvii List of Abbreviations xix Author s Note xx 1 Introductory Concerns 1 1.1 Assyriology and the Writing of History 3 1.1.1 Cuneiform Texts as Historical Sources 4 1.2 Historical Science and the Handling of Sources 17 1.3 Chronology 20 2 The Sumero -Akkadian Background 24 2.1 Babylonia as Geographic Unit 24 2.2 The Natural Environment 25 2.3 The Neolithic Revolution 28 2.4 The Ubaid Period (6500 4000) 29 2.5 The Uruk Period (4000 3100) 30 2.6 The Jemdet Nasr Period (3100 2900) 31 2.7 The Early Dynastic Period (2900 2350) 34 2.7.1 The State of Lagash 38 2.7.2 Babylon in the Early Dynastic Period 40 2.8 The Sargonic (Old Akkadian) and Gutian Periods (ca. 2334 2113) 41 2.8.1 Akkadian and Sumerian Linguistic Areas 42 2.8.2 The Early Sargonic Period (ca. 2334 2255) 44 2.8.3 The Classical Sargonic Period (ca. 2254 2193) 46 2.8.4 Babylon in the Sargonic Period 50 2.8.5 The Late Sargonic (ca. 2193 2154) and Gutian Periods (ca. 2153 2113) 51 2.9 The Third Dynasty of Ur (2112 2004) 52 2.9.1 King of Sumer and Akkad 53 2.9.2 Shulgi s Babylonia 54 2.9.3 Failure of the Ur III State 56 2.9.4 Babylon during the Ur III Period 57 3 The Rise of Babylon 60 3.1 The First Dynasty of Isin (2017 1794) 62 3.2 The Amorites 64 3.2.1 Amorite Genealogies and Histories 66 3.3 Date Lists and King Lists of Babylon I 68 3.4 Elusive Beginnings 69 3.5 Sumu -la -el (1880 1845) 70 3.5.1 The Letter of Anam and the Babylon -Uruk Alliance 71 3.6 Half a Century of Stability (1844 1793) 72 3.6.1 The Battle for Kazallu 74 3.6.2 The Apex of Larsa 75 3.7 Hammu -rabi (1792 1750) 76 3.7.1 In the Shadow of Samsi -Addu (1792 1775) 77 3.7.2 Eshnunna s Bid for Hegemony (1772 1770) 79 3.7.3 A Fragile Equilibrium (1769 1766) 80 3.7.4 The Elamite Intervention and its Aftermath (1766 1764) 82 3.7.5 Showdown with Larsa (1764 1763) 83 3.7.6 The Capture and Sack of Mari (1761 1759) 85 3.7.7 Towards an Empire (1759 1750) 85 3.7.8 The Code of Hammu -rabi 86 3.7.9 Hammu -rabi as Administrator 92 4 Decline of the First Dynasty 97 4.1 The Reign of Samsu -iluna (1749 1712) 97 4.1.1 The Rebellion of Rim -Sin II (1742 1740) 99 4.1.2 The Rebellion of Rim -Anum (1742 1740) 100 4.1.3 The Invasion of the Kassites (1742) 101 4.1.4 Samsu -iluna Strikes Back 101 4.1.5 Sargonic Reveries 102 4.1.6 Loss of Southern Babylonia 103 4.1.7 Northern Exertions 104 4.1.8 Loss of Central Babylonia and Rise of the Sealand 108 4.1.9 From Sumerian to Akkadian Literature 108 4.1.10 Samsu -iluna as Administrator and Legislator 109 4.2 The Last Century of Babylon I (1711 1595) 111 4.2.1 Abi -eshuh (1711 1684) 111 4.2.2 Ammi -ditana (1683 1647) 113 4.2.3 Ammi -saduqa (1646 1626) 114 4.2.4 Samsu -ditana (1625 1595) 117 4.2.5 The City of Babylon during the First Dynasty 119 5 Kassite Ascendancy 122 5.1 The Kassites as Linguistic and Cultural Group 122 5.2 The Early Kassite Period (1595 ca. 1400) 125 5.2.1 The Texts from Tell Muhammad 125 5.2.2 The Early Kassite Rulers (Sixteenth Century) 127 5.2.3 The First Dynasty of the Sealand (ca. 1725 1475) 129 5.2.4 The Reunification of Babylonia 131 5.3 Kassite Babylonia: The Documentary Evidence 132 5.3.1 A New Source: The Kudurrus 133 5.4 Karduniash: A New Babylonia 135 5.4.1 Kurigalzu I 137 5.4.2 Dur -Kurigalzu: A Kassite Royal Residence 137 5.5 The Age of Amarna 140 5.6 The Rise of Assyria 142 5.7 The Middle Kassite Period (1332 1225) 143 5.7.1 Ruralization of Babylonia 145 5.7.2 Nippur as Southern Capital 146 5.8 The Intervention of Tukulti -Ninurta I and its Aftermath 147 5.9 End of the Kassite Regime (1186 1155) 150 5.10 Akkadian Literature under the Kassites 151 6 Second Dynasty of Isin 154 6.1 Marduk and Nabu 157 6.2 Renewed Conflict with Assyria 158 6.3 Nebuchadnezzar I (1121 1100) 159 6.3.1 The Elamite Campaign and the Return of Marduk 159 6.3.2 Enuma Elish and the Supremacy of Marduk 161 6.3.3 Nebuchadnezzar I and Royal Legitimacy 163 6.4 Sealand Memories under Enlil -nadin -apli (1099 1096) 164 6.5 Marduk -nadin -ahhe (1095 1078) 164 6.5.1 Aramean Invasions 167 6.6 Marduk -shapik -zeri (1077 1065) 167 6.7 Adad -apla -iddina (1064 1043) 168 6.8 The End of Isin II (1042 1022) 169 7 Arameans and Chaldeans 171 7.1 The Arameans 172 7.2 The Chaldeans 173 7.3 Three Short Dynasties 176 7.4 The Dynasty of E 178 7.4.1 Nabu -mukin -apli (974 939) 179 7.4.2 Assyrian Resurgence 179 7.4.3 Nabu -apla -iddina 180 7.4.4 Marduk -zakir -shumi I 182 7.4.5 Descent into Anarchy (819 770?) 183 7.4.6 Eriba -Marduk 186 7.4.7 Nabu -shuma -ishkun (760? 748) 186 7.4.8 Nabonassar (747 734) 188 8 The Assyrian Century 193 8.1 The Rebellion of Mukin -zeri 196 8.2 The palu of Baltil (728 722) 197 8.3 Marduk -apla -iddina II and Chaldean Resistance (721 709) 198 8.4 The palu of Habigal (709 694) 201 8.5 The Two Shuzubus (694 689) 204 8.6 Sennacherib s Desecration of Babylon (689 681) 206 8.7 Esarhaddon Restores Babylon (681 669) 208 8.7.1 A New Generation of Opponents 209 8.8 Regnant Siblings (669 652) 211 8.9 Civil War (652 648) 214 8.10 Ashurbanipal and Kandalanu (647 630/27) 216 9 Imperial Heyday 219 9.1 Sources 220 9.1.1 Neo -Babylonian Archives 221 9.1.2 Spread of Aramaic 222 9.2 Power Struggle for Babylonia (630 620) 223 9.3 A Chaldeo -Aramean Empire 224 9.4 The Fall of Assyria (616 609) 225 9.5 Nabopolassar and the Restoration of Babylonia 227 9.6 Nebuchadnezzar in the Levant 227 9.7 The Climax of Babylon 229 9.7.1 Economic Expansion 232 9.7.2 Administration of Babylonia 233 9.7.3 Methods of Imperial Control 235 9.8 A Problematic Succession (562 556) 237 9.9 Babylon s Twilight: The Reign of Nabonidus (555 539) 238 9.9.1 The Conquest of North Arabia 239 9.9.2 Geopolitical Upheaval 240 9.9.3 The Last Days of Imperial Babylon 243 10 Babylon under Foreign Rule 246 10.1 Cyrus Enters Babylon 247 10.2 A Smooth Transition 248 10.3 The Babylonian Pretenders of 522 521 250 10.4 The Reforms of Darius I 251 10.5 The Babylonian Pretenders of 484 253 10.6 Babylonia in the Late Achaemenid Period 254 10.7 Hellenistic Babylonia 256 10.8 Alexander and his Successors in Babylon (331 311) 257 10.9 Babylon and Seleucia 259 10.10 An Age of Renewal 261 10.11 Hellenization of Babylonia 263 10.12 Parthian Takeover 265 10.13 Sic Transit 266 Appendix: Checklist of Chronicles 269 Bibliography 271 Index 273

Paul-Alain Beaulieu, PhD, is Professor of Assyriology at the University of Toronto. He is the author of several articles and books on the history and culture of Babylonia, as well as the greater spectrum of Mesopotamian history. He has been teaching Assyriology and Ancient Near Eastern History for more than twenty years.

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