In the 1970s, the behavioral psychologist Herbert S. Terrace led a remarkable experiment to see if a chimpanzee could be taught to use language. A young ape, named Nim Chimpsky in a nod to the linguist whose theories Terrace challenged, was raised by a family in New York and instructed in American Sign Language. Initially, Terrace thought that Nim could create sentences but later discovered that Nim's teachers inadvertently cued his signing. Terrace concluded that Project Nim failed-not because Nim couldn't create sentences but because he couldn't even learn words. Language is a uniquely human quality, and attempting to find it in animals is wishful thinking at best. The failure of Project Nim meant we were no closer to understanding where language comes from.
In this book, Terrace revisits Project Nim to offer a novel view of the origins of human language. In contrast to both Noam Chomsky and his critics, Terrace contends that words, as much as grammar, are the cornerstones of language. Retracing human evolution and developmental psychology, he shows that nonverbal interaction is the foundation of infant language acquisition, leading up to a child's first words. By placing words and conversation before grammar, we can, for the first time, account for the evolutionary basis of language. Terrace argues that this theory explains Nim's inability to acquire words and, more broadly, the differences between human and animal communication. Why Chimpanzees Can't Learn Language and Only Humans Can is a masterful statement of the nature of language and what it means to be human.
Herbert S. Terrace
Columbia University Press
Country of Publication:
Series: Leonard Hastings Schoff Lectures
15 September 2019
Preface Prologue 1. Numberless Gradations 2. Ape Language 3. Recent Human Ancestors and the Possible Origin of Words 4. Before an Infant Learns to Speak 5. The Origin of Language, Words in Particular Epilogue Notes References Index
Herbert S. Terrace is professor of psychology at Columbia University, where he is the director of the Primate Cognition Lab. His books include Nim: A Chimpanzee Who Learned Sign Language (Columbia, 1987).
Reviews for Why Chimpanzees Can't Learn Language and Only Humans Can
In this work, the distinguished psychologist Herbert S. Terrace illustrates a unique comparative perspective on the nature and evolution of language. -- Charles Yang, Professor of Linguistics and Computer Science, Director of the Program in Cognitive Science, University of Pennsylvania Terrace played a very significant role in ape language research. His personal reflections and the conclusions he has drawn about language remain both controversial and relevant. -- Terrence W. Deacon, Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley Language seems to be a miracle; even our closest relatives, the great apes, lack any capacity for the grammatical structures that make human language unique. Herbert Terrace goes further and shows that chimpanzees can't even learn words. With characteristic clarity, he nevertheless gives a convincing account of language evolution in Darwinian terms, without appeal to miracles. This is an important new approach to an old and vexed problem. -- Michael Corballis, Emeritus Professor of Psychology, University of Auckland Herb Terrace, known for his breakthrough work on the ape, Nim Chimpsky, now shines light on language acquisition in human children. In this masterful work Terrace provides extraordinarily novel ideas about the evolution and development of the human mind and brain. This book will change how you think about human uniqueness. Terrace fills in one of the most important missing links in cognitive science-what it means to be a talking human being, and how we got that way. -- Andrew N. Meltzoff, Ph.D., Professor, University of Washington and co-author of <i>The Scientist in the Crib</i>