NICOLINO AMBROSINO is Director of Respiratory Unit, Cardio-Thoracic Department, University Hospital of Pisa, Italy, Director of Pulmonary Rehabilitation and Weaning Center, Volterra, Italy and is or was Professor at the Universities of Pisa, Pavia, Florence, and Trieste, Italy. Professor Ambrosino's research and clinical activity has been devoted to Respiratory Critical Care, Pulmonary Rehabilitation and Home Respiratory Care. He contributed to the development of the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation techniques in acute and chronic respiratory failure, with several clinical trials and original experimental studies. Results of his studies have been published in more than 155 peer reviewed international journals. The former Head of Pulmonary Rehabilitation Working Group of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), Dr. Ambrosino is member of various editorial boards of several international journals, written over 60 books and chapters, 200 articles, and has spoken at over 100 international conferences. ROGER GOLDSTEIN is a Professor of Medicine and Physical Therapy at the University of Toronto, where he holds the NSA Chair in Respiratory Rehabilitation Research. Dr. Goldstein received his medical degree from the Victoria University of Manchester, UK. His research interests centre on the rehabilitation of patients with chronic respiratory conditions. The Divisional Program in Respiratory Rehabilitation at West Park Healthcare Centre is an academic clinical, teaching and research unit where subspecialty trainees in respiratory medicine from Canada and overseas, learn about rehabilitation and chronic ventilation. Recently appointed as the provincial centre of excellence in long term ventilation, there are over 300 ventilator-assisted individuals linked to this unit, the vast majority living in the community. The Centre also serves as a location for ventilation home training and reassessment. Dr. Goldstein is internationally known for his research on chronic respiratory conditions and has published in many peer-reviewed journals, making him a popular speaker and regular presenter at international conferences.