Amidst tightening requirements for eliminating CFC's, HCFC's, halons, and HFC's from use in air conditioning and heat pumps, the search began for replacements that are environmentally benign, non-flammable, and similar to the banned refrigerants in system-level behavior. Refrigerant mixtures are increasingly used as working fluids because they demonstrate desirable thermodynamic, feasibility, and safety characteristics.
Vapor Compression Heat Pumps with Refrigerant Mixtures provides the first comprehensive, single-source treatment of working fluid mixtures and their applications in vapor compression systems. The authors explain in detail the thermodynamics of refrigerant mixtures, which is vastly more complex than that of individual refrigerants, as well as the fundamentals of various refrigeration cycles and methods for improving their efficiency. They also include important discussions on heat transfer and pressure drop correlations, experimental performance measurements and examples of using refrigerants and their mixtures, and critical operational issues such as control issues, refrigerant mixing, and mass fraction shifts.
Assembling reviews of the scattered literature on the subject and reflecting two decades of research by the authors, Vapor Compression Heat Pumps with Refrigerant Mixtures prepares you to design and implement systems that take the best advantage of fluid mixtures, confronting the challenges and grasping the opportunities that they present.
Introduction Heat Pumping Overview of Current Products History of Working Fluids Requirements for Working Fluids Background of Environmental Concerns References Properties of Working Fluids Thermodynamic Diagrams of Pure and Mixed Refrigerants Analytical Treatment of Thermodynamic Properties Ternary and Multicomponent Mixtures References Vapor Compression Cycle Fundamentals The Carnot Cycle Heat Pumps in the Context of Energy Conversion The Ideal Vapor Compression Cycle Differences between the Carnot Cycle and Vapor Compression Cycle Realistic Vapor Compression Cycles Lorenz Cycle Vapor Compression Cycle with Zeotropic Mixtures in Thermodynamic Diagrams The Matching of Temperature Glides Methods for Comparing the Performance of Pure and Mixed Refrigerants Simulation of the Vapor Compression Cycle References Methods for Improving the Cycle Efficiency Measures of Incremental Efficiency Improvement The Suction Line to Liquid Line Heat Exchanger The Economizer The Expander The Three-Path Evaporator References Experimental Performance Measurements Laboratory Breadboard Tests Actual System Tests Experience References Refrigerant Mixtures in Refrigeration Applications Single Evaporator Refrigeration Cycle Dual Evaporator Refrigeration Cycle Lorenz-Meutzner Cycle Modified Lorenz-Meutzner Cycle Refrigerator References Refrigerant Mixtures in Heat Pump Applications Capacity Control R22 Replacement References Heat Transfer of Refrigerant Mixtures Nucleate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients Correlations for Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Pressure Drop During Evaporation Condensation Heat Transfer Coefficients Correlations for Flow Condensation Heat Transfer Pressure Drop during Condensation References Operational Issues Regulation Refrigerant Recovery Cycle Flushing Refrigerant Mixing Refrigerant Mass Fraction Measurement Evacuating a System Refrigerant Charge Leak Checking Mass Fraction Shifts References Index
Radermacher\, Reinhard; Hwang\, Yunho