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Upgrading and Repairing PCs

Scott Mueller

$75.95

Mixed media product

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Que Corporation,U.S.
07 July 2015
PCs (IBM-compatible personal computers); Maintenance & repairs
For 25 years, Upgrading and Repairing PCs has been the world's #1 guide to PC hardware: The single source for reliable information on troubleshooting and fixing problems, adding hardware, optimising performance, and building new PCs. Scott Mueller delivers practical answers about PC processors, mother-boards, buses, BIOSes, memory, SSD and HDD storage, video, audio, I/O, input devices, networks, Internet connectivity, power, and much more. The book offers the industry's best coverage of diagnostics, testing, and repair-plus cutting-edge discussions of improving performance via overclocking and other techniques.
By:   Scott Mueller
Imprint:   Que Corporation,U.S.
Country of Publication:   United States
Edition:   22nd edition
Dimensions:   Height: 237mm,  Width: 187mm,  Spine: 66mm
Weight:   2.008kg
ISBN:   9780789756107
ISBN 10:   0789756102
Pages:   1184
Publication Date:   07 July 2015
Audience:   Professional and scholarly ,  Undergraduate
Format:   Mixed media product
Publisher's Status:   Active
Introduction 1 Chapter 1 Development of the PC 5 Computer History: Before Personal Computers 5 Timeline 5 Electronic Computers 10 Modern Computers 11 From Tubes to Transistors 11 Integrated Circuits 14 History of the PC 15 Birth of the Personal Computer 15 The IBM Personal Computer 16 The PC Industry 34 Years Later 17 Chapter 2 PC Components, Features, and System Design 21 What Is a PC? 21 Who Controls PC Software? 23 Who Controls PC Hardware? 26 White-Box Systems 28 System Types 29 System Components 30 Chapter 3 Processor Types and Specifications 33 Microprocessor History 33 The First Microprocessor 33 PC Processor Evolution 36 16-Bit to 64-Bit Architecture Evolution 39 Processor Specifications 40 Data I/O Bus 48 Address Bus 48 Internal Registers (Internal Data Bus) 49 Processor Modes 49 Processor Benchmarks 54 Comparing Processor Performance 55 Cache Memory 58 Processor Features 65 System Management Mode 65 Superscalar Execution 66 MMX Technology 67 Dynamic Execution 69 Dual Independent Bus Architecture 70 HT Technology (Hyperthreading) 70 Multicore Technology 72 Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Support 73 Processor Manufacturing 74 PGA Chip Packaging 78 Single Edge Contact and Single Edge Processor Packaging 80 Processor Socket and Slot Types 81 Socket LGA775 84 Socket LGA1156 85 Socket LGA1366 86 Socket LGA1155 87 Socket LGA2011 87 Socket LGA1150 89 Socket AM2/AM2+/AM3/AM3+ 89 Socket F (1207FX) 91 Socket FM1 92 Socket FM2 92 Socket FM2+ 92 Socket AM1 (Socket FS1B) 92 CPU Operating Voltages 93 Math Coprocessors (Floating-Point Units) 94 Processor Bugs and Steppings 94 Processor Code Names 95 P1 (086) Processors 95 P2 (286) Processors 97 P3 (386) Processors 98 P4 (486) Processors 99 P5 (586) Processors 100 AMD-K5 102 Intel P6 (686) Processors 103 Pentium Pro Processors 103 Pentium II Processors 104 Pentium III 106 Celeron 107 Intel Pentium 4 and Extreme Edition Processors 108 Intel Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition 110 Intel Core Processors 112 Intel Core 2 Family 112 Intel (Nehalem) Core i Processors 116 AMD K6 Processors 121 AMD K7 Processors 122 AMD Athlon 122 AMD Duron 123 AMD Athlon XP 124 Athlon MP 124 AMD K8 Processors 124 AMD Athlon 64 and 64 FX 124 AMD Sempron 128 AMD Athlon X2, 64 X2, and 64 FX 128 AMD K10 Processors (Phenom, Phenom II, Athlon II, Athlon X2, Sempron) 130 AMD Bulldozer, Piledriver, Steamroller, and Excavator FX Processors 134 AMD Fusion/HSA APUs 137 Processor Upgrades 139 Overclocking 142 Quartz Crystals 142 Modern PC Clocks 145 Overclocking Tips 147 Unlocking Cores 148 Bus Speeds and Multipliers 149 Processor Cooling 152 Heatsinks 152 Liquid Cooling 158 Thermally Advantaged Chassis 159 Processor Troubleshooting Techniques 161 Chapter 4 Motherboards and Buses 165 Motherboard Form Factors 165 Obsolete Form Factors 166 ATX and Other Modern Form Factors 177 Processor Sockets/Slots 189 Chipsets 192 Chipset Evolution 193 Intel Chipsets 195 Intel Chipset Model Numbers 195 Intel Integrated Graphics Architecture 197 AMD Integrated Graphics Architecture 197 Traditional North/southbridge Architecture 197 Hub Architecture 199 HyperTransport and Other Processor/Chipset Interconnects 201 Intel's Early 386/486 Chipsets 201 Fifth-Generation (P5 Pentium Class) Chipsets 202 Sixth-Generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III Class) Chipsets 203 Seventh/Eighth-Generation (Pentium 4/D, Core2, and Core i) Chipsets 207 Intel 915 Family 215 Intel 925X Family 215 Intel 945 Express Family 216 Intel 955X and 975X Family 217 Intel 96x Series 217 Intel 3x and 4x Series Chipsets 218 Intel 5x Series Chipsets 220 Intel 6x Series Chipsets 224 Intel 7x Series Chipsets 225 Intel 8x Series Chipsets 227 Intel 9x Series Chipsets 229 Third-Party Chipsets for Intel Processors 231 SiS Chipsets 231 ULi Electronics Chipsets 231 ATI Chipsets 231 VIA Chipsets 232 NVIDIA Chipsets for Intel Processors 232 Chipsets for AMD Processors 232 AMD Athlon Chipsets 233 AMD Athlon 64 Chipsets 234 AMD 8000 (8151) Chipset 234 AMD (Formerly ATI) Chipsets for Athlon 64, Sempron, Phenom 235 Third-Party Chipsets for AMD Processors 242 VIA Chipsets 242 SiS Chipsets 242 NVIDIA Chipsets 243 Super I/O Chips 244 Motherboard Connectors 244 System Bus Types, Functions, and Features 255 The Processor Bus (FSB) 261 Types of I/O Buses 262 The ISA Bus 262 The Micro Channel Bus 262 The EISA Bus 263 Local Buses (VESA, PCI, PCI Express, AGP) 263 System Resources 270 Interrupts 271 DMA Channels 276 I/O Port Addresses 276 Motherboard Selection Criteria (Knowing What to Look For) 278 Chipset Documentation 279 Chapter 5 BIOS 281 BIOS Basics 281 Motherboard ROM BIOS 285 ROM Hardware 285 ROM Shadowing 287 ROM Chip Types 287 ROM BIOS Manufacturers 291 BIOS Hardware/Software 292 Upgrading the BIOS 292 Where to Get Your BIOS Update 293 Determining Your BIOS Version 293 Backing Up Your BIOS 293 Backing Up Your BIOS Setup (CMOS RAM) Settings 294 Upgrading a Flash BIOS 295 Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses 303 Preboot Environment 305 Unified Extensible Firmware Interface 307 UEFI and BIOS Limitations 307 UEFI Support 309 BIOS Setup 309 Running or Accessing the BIOS Setup Program 310 BIOS Setup Menus 310 Maintenance Menu 311 Main Menu 313 Exit Menu 345 AMD-Specific BIOS Settings 346 PnP BIOS 347 PnP Device IDs 347 ACPI 347 BIOS/MBR Error Messages 348 BIOS Boot Error Messages 349 MBR Boot Error Messages 352 Chapter 6 Memory 355 Memory Basics 355 ROM 357 DRAM 357 Cache Memory: SRAM 359 Memory Standards 361 Speed and Performance 362 Fast Page Mode DRAM 365 Extended Data Out RAM 366 SDRAM 367 DDR SDRAM 368 DDR2 SDRAM 370 DDR3 SDRAM 372 DDR4 SDRAM 374 RDRAM 375 Memory Modules 375 Registered Modules 382 SDR DIMM Details 383 DDR DIMM Details 384 DDR2 DIMM Details 384 DDR3 DIMM Details 384 DDR4 DIMM Details 384 Determining a Memory Module's Size and Features 385 Memory Banks 387 Memory Module Speed 388 Parity and ECC 388 Parity Checking 390 How Parity Checking Works 391 ECC 391 RAM Upgrades 392 Upgrade Options and Strategies 393 Purchasing Memory 395 Replacing Modules with Higher-Capacity Versions 397 Installing Memory Modules 397 Troubleshooting Memory 399 Memory Defect Isolation Procedures 403 The System Logical Memory Layout 405 Chapter 7 The ATA/IDE Interface 409 An Overview of the IDE Interface 409 Precursors to IDE 409 IDE Origins 410 Origins of ATA 411 ATA Standards 412 ATA-1 (ATA Interface for Disk Drives) 414 ATA-2 (ATA Interface with Extensions-2) 415 ATA-3 (ATA Interface-3) 415 ATA/ATAPI-4 (ATA with Packet Interface Extension-4) 416 ATA/ATAPI-5 (ATA with Packet Interface-5) 417 ATA/ATAPI-6 (ATA with Packet Interface-6) 417 ATA/ATAPI-7 (ATA with Packet Interface-7) 418 ATA/ATAPI-8 419 PATA 419 PATA I/O Connector 419 PATA I/O Cable 423 Longer or Rounded Cables 425 PATA Signals 425 PATA Dual-Drive Configurations 426 PATA PIO Transfer Modes 429 PATA DMA Transfer Modes 429 SATA 431 SATA Standards and Performance 431 SATA Express 432 SATA Cables and Connectors 434 eSATA 439 SATA Configuration 443 Advanced Host Controller Interface 444 Non-Volatile Memory Express 445 SATA Transfer Modes 445 ATA Features 446 ATA Commands 446 ATA Security Mode 447 Host Protected Area 448 ATAPI 449 ATA Drive Capacity Limitations 450 Prefixes for Decimal and Binary Multiples 451 BIOS Limitations 451 CHS Versus LBA 452 CHS/LBA and LBA/CHS Conversions 453 BIOS Commands Versus ATA Commands 454 CHS Limitations (the 528MB Barrier) 455 CHS Translation (Breaking the 528MB Barrier) 457 The 2.1GB and 4.2GB Barriers 459 LBA-Assist Translation 462 The 8.4GB Barrier 465 The 137GB Barrier and Beyond 466 Operating System and Other Software Limitations 468 GPT and the 2.2TB Barrier 470 PATA/SATA RAID 471 Software RAID 474 Chapter 8 Magnetic Storage 475 Magnetic Storage 475 History of Magnetic Storage 475 How Magnetic Fields Are Used to Store Data 476 Read/Write Head Designs 479 Ferrite 480 Metal-In-Gap 480 Thin-Film 480 Magneto-Resistive Heads 481 Giant Magneto-Resistive Heads 482 Head Sliders 483 Data-Encoding Schemes 486 Frequency Modulation Encoding 487 Modified FM Encoding 487 Run Length Limited Encoding 488 Encoding Scheme Comparisons 489 Partial-Response, Maximum-Likelihood Decoders 490 Capacity Measurements 491 Areal Density 492 Perpendicular Magnetic Recording 495 Helium-Filled Drives 497 Shingled Magnetic Recording 497 Definition of a Hard Disk 498 Hard Drive Advancements 499 Form Factors 500 5 1/4-Inch Drive 502 3 1/2-Inch Drive 502 2 1/2-Inch Drive 502 1.8-Inch Drive 503 1-Inch Drives 503 HDD Operation 503 Data Recovery Options 505 The Ultimate HDD Analogy 506 Tracks and Sectors 507 ECC 510 Disk Formatting 515 Basic HDD Components 521 Hard Disk Platters (Disks) 522 Recording Media 522 Read/Write Heads 524 Head Actuator Mechanisms 526 Air Filters 532 Hard Disk Temperature Acclimation 534 Spindle Motors 534 Logic Boards 535 Cables and Connectors 536 Configuration Items 536 Hard Disk Features 536 Capacity 537 Performance 538 Reliability 543 Chapter 9 Flash and Removable Storage 547 Alternative Storage Devices 547 Flash Memory Devices 547 CompactFlash, XQD, and CFast 549 SmartMedia 551 MultiMediaCard 551 SecureDigital 552 Sony Memory Stick 552 ATA Flash PC Card 553 Card-Picture Card 553 Solid-State Drives 553 Virtual SSD (RAMdisk) 554 Flash-Based SSDs 554 USB Flash Drives 558 Comparing Flash Memory Devices 559 SD Cards Speed Class and UHS Speed Class Markings 561 File Systems Used by Flash Memory 563 Flash Card Readers 563 Card Readers 563 ReadyBoost Support 564 Cloud-Based Storage 565 Floppy Disk Drives 566 Tape Drives 567 Chapter 10 Optical Storage 569 Optical Technology 569 CD-Based Optical Technology 570 CDs: A Brief History 570 CD Construction and Technology 571 Mass-Producing CDs 571 Writable CDs 583 MultiRead Specifications 590 MultiPlay and MultiAudio 592 DVD 592 DVD History 593 DVD Construction and Technology 593 DVD Tracks and Sectors 595 Handling DVD Errors 599 DVD Capacity (Sides and Layers) 601 Data Encoding on the DVD Disc 604 Recordable DVD Standards 604 Multiformat Rewritable DVD Drives 612 BD 613 HD-DVD 616 Optical Disc Formats 616 CD Formats 616 DVD Formats and Standards 625 Optical Disc File Systems 628 Ripping/Copying Discs 634 For Music Use Only CD-R/RW Discs 635 CD Copy Protection 635 CD Digital Rights Management 636 DVD and Blu-ray Copy Protection 636 Optical Drive Performance Specifications 640 CD Data Transfer Rate 640 CD Drive Speed 640 DVD Drive Speed 641 BD Drive Speed 644 Access Time 645 Buffer/Cache 646 Direct Memory Access and Ultra-DMA 646 Interface 646 Loading Mechanism 647 Other Drive Features 648 How to Reliably Record Optical Discs 648 Bootable Optical Discs-El Torito 649 LightScribe and LabelFlash 649 Troubleshooting Optical Drives 649 Caring for Optical Media 653 Updating the Firmware in an Optical Drive 654 Chapter 11 Video Hardware 657 Display Adapters and Monitors 657 Video Display Adapters 658 Video Adapter Types 658 Integrated Video/Motherboard Chipsets 659 CPUs with Integrated Video 663 Intel Processors with Integrated Graphics 664 AMD Desktop APUs 667 Video Adapter Components 671 Identifying the Video and System Chipsets 673 Video RAM 674 The DAC 678 Video Display Interfaces 678 The System Interface 678 The Display Interface 679 TV Display Interfaces 695 3D Graphics Accelerators 696 How 3D Accelerators Work 697 APIs 700 Dual-GPU Scene Rendering 704 Monitors 707 Display Specifications 707 LCD and LED Technology 716 Touchscreens 719 Plasma Display Technology 720 LCD and DLP Projectors 721 Using Multiple Monitors 722 Dualview 722 Homogeneous Adapters 723 Heterogeneous Adapters 723 Choosing the Best Display Hardware for a Particular Task 723 Video Troubleshooting and Maintenance 724 Troubleshooting Video Cards and Drivers 725 Video Drivers 727 Maintaining Monitors 728 Testing Monitors 728 Adjusting Monitors 729 Bad Pixels 730 Troubleshooting Monitors 730 Repairing Monitors 731 Chapter 12 Audio Hardware 733 Audio Hardware Concepts and Terms 734 The Nature of Sound 734 Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Hardware 734 Sampling 735 Early PC Sound Cards 736 Limitations of Sound Blaster Pro Compatibility 736 Microsoft Windows and Audio Support 736 DirectX and Audio Support Hardware 737 Core Audio APIs for Windows 737 3D Gaming Audio Standards 738 Legacy Audio Support Through Virtualization 740 Audio Hardware Features 740 Basic Connectors 740 Audio Signal Processing Methods 743 Advanced Audio Features 743 Volume Control 745 MIDI Support Features 745 Data Compression 746 Sound Drivers 747 Sound Cards for Sound Producers 748 Motherboard Chipsets with Integrated Audio 748 Intel Azalia HD Audio 749 Troubleshooting PC Audio Problems 749 Sound Card and Onboard Audio Problems 749 Speakers 753 Speaker Selection Criteria 753 Theater and Surround Sound Considerations 754 Microphones 755 Chapter 13 External I/O Interfaces 757 Introduction to Input/Output Ports 757 Serial Versus Parallel 757 Universal Serial Bus 758 IEEE 1394 (FireWire or i.LINK) 775 Hot-Plugging (and Unplugging) 779 Thunderbolt Technology 782 Low-Speed External Connections 784 Serial Ports 784 Parallel Ports 789 Chapter 14 Input Devices 795 Keyboards 795 Enhanced 101-Key Keyboard 795 103/104-Key Windows Keyboard 796 Keyboard Technology 798 Keyswitch Design 798 The Keyboard Interface 804 Typematic Functions 805 Keyboard Scan Codes 806 International Keyboard Layouts 807 Keyboard/Mouse Interface Connectors 808 USB Keyboards 810 Keyboards with Special Features 811 Keyboard Troubleshooting and Repair 811 Cleaning a Keyboard 812 Keyboard Recommendations 813 Pointing Devices 814 Mouse Sensitivity 815 Ball-Type Mice 815 Optical Mice 815 Pointing Device Interface Types 817 Scroll Wheels 819 Mouse Troubleshooting 821 Cleaning Your Mouse 821 Alternative Pointing Devices 821 Touchscreen Technology 826 Wireless Input Devices 827 Power Management Features of Wireless Input Devices 828 Supporting Multiple Devices with a Single Transceiver 829 Troubleshooting Wireless Input Devices 829 Chapter 15 Internet Connectivity 831 Internet Connectivity Trends 831 Broadband Internet Access Types 832 Cable Internet 832 Digital Subscriber Line 836 Wireless Broadband 840 Cellular Broadband 3G and 4G Services 840 Satellite Broadband 841 ISDN 844 Leased Lines 845 Comparing High-Speed Internet Access 846 Dial-Up Modems 847 Internet Connection Security 848 Having a Backup Plan in Case of Service Interruptions 849 Sharing Your Internet Connection 850 Routers for Internet Sharing 850 Modem/Router Status LEDs 851 Chapter 16 Local Area Networking 853 Defining a Network 853 Types of Networks 854 Requirements for a Network 855 Client/Server Versus Peer Networks 855 Client/Server Networks 856 Peer-to-Peer Networks 857 Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks 857 Network Architecture Overview 858 Wired Ethernet 860 Wireless Ethernet 862 Bluetooth 868 Hardware Elements of Your Network 869 NICs for Wired Ethernet Networks 869 Network Cables for Wired Ethernet 871 Wired Network Topologies 880 Switches for Ethernet Networks 883 Wireless Ethernet Hardware 887 Network Protocols 892 IP and TCP/IP 892 IPX and NetBEUI 893 Other Home Networking Solutions 894 HomePNA 894 HomeGrid Forum and G.hn Networking 895 Power Line Networking 895 Putting Your Network Together 897 Network Adapters 898 Cables and Connections Between Computers 899 Switch/Access Point 899 Chapter 17 Power Supplies 903 The Power Supply 903 Primary Function and Operation 903 Voltage Rails 904 The Power Good Signal 906 Power Supply Form Factors 907 Modern Form Factors 910 Power Switches 925 ATX and Newer 925 PC/XT/AT and LPX Power Switches 927 Motherboard Power Connectors 928 AT/LPX Power Supply Connectors 929 ATX and ATX12V Motherboard Power Connectors 931 Backward and Forward Compatibility 944 Dell Proprietary (Nonstandard) ATX Design 946 Additional Power Connectors 946 Peripheral Power Connectors 946 Floppy (Berg) Power Connectors 947 Serial ATA Power Connectors 948 PCI Express Auxiliary Graphics Power Connectors 949 Power Supply Specifications 953 Power Supply Loading 953 Power Supply Ratings 955 Other Power Supply Specifications 956 Power Factor Correction 958 SLI-Ready and CrossFire/CrossFireX Certifications 960 Safety Certifications 960 Power-Use Calculations 961 Power Savings 963 80 Plus 963 ENERGY STAR 965 Advanced Configuration and Power Interface 966 Power Cycling 968 Power Supply Troubleshooting 972 Overloaded Power Supplies 973 Inadequate Cooling 973 Using Digital Multimeters 974 Specialized Test Equipment 977 Power Supply Recommendations 980 Modular Cables 981 Sources for Replacement Power Supplies 982 Power-Protection Systems 982 Surge Suppressors (Protectors) 984 Network and Phone Line Surge Protectors 984 Line Conditioners 985 Backup Power 985 Real-Time Clock/Nonvolatile RAM (CMOS RAM) Batteries 988 Modern CMOS Batteries 989 Obsolete or Unique CMOS Batteries 990 CMOS Battery Troubleshooting 991 Chapter 18 Building or Upgrading Systems 993 System Components 993 Before You Start: How to Decide What to Build 995 Case and Power Supply 997 Processor 998 Motherboard 999 Memory 1001 I/O Ports 1001 Hard Disk/Solid-State Drives 1003 Removable Storage 1003 Input Devices 1004 Video Card and Display 1004 Audio Hardware 1005 Accessories 1005 Hardware and Software Resources 1006 System Assembly and Disassembly 1007 Assembly Preparation 1007 Installing the CPU and Heatsink 1011 Installing Memory Modules 1017 Mounting the New Motherboard in the Case 1018 Preparing a Modular Power Supply 1023 Connecting the Power Supply 1023 Connecting I/O and Other Cables to the Motherboard 1026 Installing the Drives 1027 Installing a Video Card 1031 Installing Additional Expansion Cards 1033 Replacing the Cover and Connecting External Cables 1033 System Startup 1033 Installing the OS 1035 Troubleshooting New Installations 1037 Chapter 19 PC Diagnostics, Testing, and Maintenance 1039 PC Diagnostics 1039 Diagnostics Software 1039 The POST 1040 Insyde BIOS Diagnostic and Beep Codes 1053 Peripheral Diagnostics 1053 Operating System Diagnostics 1053 Commercial Diagnostics Software 1054 Free/User-Supported Diagnostics 1055 The Boot Process 1055 The Hardware Boot Process: Operating System Independent 1056 The DOS Boot Process 1061 The Windows 9x/Me Boot Process 1061 Windows 2000/XP Startup 1061 Windows Vista/7 Startup 1062 Windows 8.1/10 Startup 1063 PC Maintenance Tools 1063 Hand Tools 1064 Safety 1068 Test Equipment 1069 Special Tools for the Enthusiast 1074 Preventive Maintenance 1075 Active Preventive Maintenance Procedures 1076 Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures 1081 Troubleshooting Tips and Techniques 1085 Repair or Replace? 1086 Basic Troubleshooting Steps 1086 Troubleshooting by Replacing Parts 1087 Troubleshooting by the Bootstrap Approach 1087 Problems During the POST 1089 Problems Running Software 1089 Problems with Adapter Cards 1089 Top Troubleshooting Problems 1090 9780789756107, TOC, 6/8/2015

Scott Mueller is the president of Mueller Technical Research (MTR), an international research and corporate training firm. Since 1982, MTR has produced the industry's most in-depth, accurate, and effective seminars, books, articles, videos, and FAQs covering PC hardware and data recovery. MTR maintains a client list that includes Fortune 500 companies, U.S. and foreign governments, major software and hardware corporations, as well as PC enthusiasts and entrepreneurs. Scott's seminars have been presented to several thousands of PC support professionals throughout the world. Scott personally teaches seminars nationwide covering all aspects of PC hardware (including troubleshooting, maintenance, repair, and upgrade), A+ Certification, and data recovery/forensics. He has a knack for making technical topics not only understandable, but entertaining; his classes are never boring! If you have ten or more people to train, Scott can design and present a custom seminar for your organization. Although he has taught classes virtually nonstop since 1982, Scott is best known as the author of the longest-running, most popular, and most comprehensive PC hardware book in the world, Upgrading and Repairing PCs, which has become the core of an entire series of books, including Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Upgrading and Repairing Laptops, and Upgrading and Repairing Windows. Scott's premiere work, Upgrading and Repairing PCs, has sold more than two million copies, making it by far the most popular and longest-running PC hardware book on the market today. Scott has been featured in Forbes magazine and has written several articles for PC World magazine, Maximum PC magazine, the Scott Mueller Forum, various computer and automotive newsletters, and the Upgrading and Repairing PCs website. Contact MTR directly if you have a unique book, article, or video project in mind or if you want Scott to conduct a custom PC troubleshooting, repair, maintenance, upgrade, or data-recovery seminar tailored for your organization: Mueller Technical Research: Web: www.muellertech.com Email: info@muellertech.com Forum: www.forum.scottmueller.com Scott has a forum exclusively for his readers at www.forum.scottmueller.com. Anybody can view the forum, but posting is available only to registered members. If you have suggestions or comments about the book or new book or article topics you would like to see covered, send them to info@muellertech.com.

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