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Plutarch (c.50-c.120 AD) was a writer and thinker born into a wealthy, established family of Chaeronea in central Greece. His voluminous surviving writings are broadly divided into the 'moral' works and the Parallel Lives of outstanding Greek and Roman leaders. The former (Moralia) are a mixture of rhetorical and antiquarian pieces, together with technical and moral philosophy (sometimes in dialogue form). The Lives have been influential from the Renaissance onwards. Robin Seager is a Reader in Classics and Ancient History at the University of Liverpool and the author of a biography of Pompey. Rex Warner (translator) translated widely from Latin and Greek including, for Penguin, Xenophon, Thucydides and Plutarch.
Capuzzi, David & Stauffer, Mark D., Editors (2006) Career Counseling: Foundations, Perspectives, and Applications. Boston: Pearson. Co-editors Capuzzi and Stauffer have compiled a timely text for master's level students and practitioners that not only examines the historical perspective of career development, but also investigates the rapidly changing global effects on the workforce caused by challenges such as downsizing, outsourcing, specialization, and mobility. It draws on the expertise of a number of nationally and internationally known authors in the area of career development. The book utilizes case studies in most of the chapters to help connect the reading with practical application. Websites are included at the end of many chapters to provide further information. The eighteen chapters of the book are divided into five sections including Foundations of Career Counseling, Skills and Techniques, Contextual Perspectives on Career and Lifestyle Planning, Career and Lifestyle Planning with Specific Populations, and the Epilogue. The book begins by tracing the history of career counseling through nine stages derived from the works of Mark Pope and Roger Aubrey. It succinctly covers a span of over one hundred years of the development of career counseling in a logical progression including key players, legislation, theorists, institutions and professional organizations, licensure and accreditation issues, and world events (p.3). It then examines different theoretical approaches including trait and factor theories, developmental theories, cognitive learning theories, psychodynamic approaches, and theories of embedded career. This part also includes a discussion of ethical and legal issues in career counseling. A chapter titled Toward a Holistic View , written by Jane Goodman addresses the concept that career and personal counseling are interrelated. Utilizing four case studies, Goodman discusses barriers, pathways, finding meaning in work and career, integrating spirituality in the workplace, the effects of hope and optimism on career decision making, and approaching decision making process. She also discusses the postmodern approaches of narrative, integrative life planning, and constructivist theories. The use of the case studies throughout the chapter provides the reader with an understanding of the different approaches. Part II of the book provides an overview of the skills and techniques utilized in career counseling. It begins with a brief overview of psychometric concepts that are part of the knowledge base necessary when using assessment instruments. A case study demonstrating the use of the Self Directed Search with a 17 year old male helps the reader new to using assessments understand the process. Following this are chapters discussing the topics of comprehensive development plans; program promotion, management, and implementation; and supervision, coaching and consultation. The move to provide career information using technology began in a time before the invention of personal computers or the World Wide Web. Deborah Bloch describes the formation of the Association of Computer-Based Systems for Career Information (ACSCI) in 1978 and the primitive equipment utilized at that time. She provides a description of chaos and complexity theories and their application to career development and then moves into the sources of career information. She suggests that this chapter be read at the computer to allow the reader to be able to explore sites while reading. The chapter is filled with web site addresses for use by career counselors and their clients. It would have been a great convenience if the chapter had been provided in the form of a CD with links. She explains the history and use of career information delivery systems (CIDS) and computer-assisted guidance systems (CACGS), occupational information systems, and educational information systems. The section of the chapter devoted to job search information includes information on using internet job search sites, using technology to respond to resume requests including creating scannable resumes and sending resumes by e-mail, using web-based resume listing services, and using corporate web sites for career information. Part III of the text provides an overview of career counselors in the settings where they work; in schools,in mental health and private practice settings, in vocational rehabilitation settings, counseling with couples and families. In Part IV, the focus is on career and lifestyle planning with specific populations. Among the topics covered are gender; workplace issues for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender persons; visibly recognizable racial and ethnic minority groups; and clients with addictive behaviors. Barbara Richter Herlihy and Zarus Watson investigate gender issues in career counseling including the underlying causes of gender inequities, the outcomes of gender role stereotyping and its consequences for boys and girls, and gender differences in career decision making. They discuss issues today's men and women encounter such as two career families, balancing work and family, child and elder care, and the stress and health concerns that sometimes result from the competitive workplace. Chris Wood examines the career counseling needs of clients with addictive behaviors utilizing Prochaska and DiClemente's transtheoretical model of behavioral change and Miller and Rollnick's Motivational Interviewing. He provides the counselor with a repertoire of tools to help them further positive change in clients and avoid the potential pitfalls posed by resistance (p. 470). The Epilogue explores career and lifestyle planning for counselors themselves. Suzanne Simon looks at the concept of viability and its role in the counselor's life. She reminds the practitioner that the personal and professional roles are linked and require the counselor to be aware and reflective of that link to be most effective both professionally and personally In some edited texts with chapters written by different authors, there is a tendency for repetition of material and a disjointed feel to the information. That is not the case with this book. Capuzzi and Stauffer have compiled a text that flows easily and presents up-to-date material throughout. Whether discussing the history and theories of career counseling, the skills and techniques necessary to be effective in career counseling, the contextual settings of the career counselor, or career and lifestyle planning with specific populations, there is continuity throughout that provides the reader with the knowledge base necessary for successful career counseling. The case studies and websites provide a text that is useful for both the student in the classroom and as a tool for the practitioner. Pages: 510 Price: $97.67 ISBN: 0-205-43108-9 Reviewed by M. Jeanne Reid, Doctoral Student, The Ohio State University.