In the seven years since the publication of the first edition of Sustainable Practices in Geoenvironmental Engineering, the combination of population growth and increased exploitation of renewable and non-renewable natural resources has added increased stresses on the quality and health of the geoenvironment. This is especially true when viewed in the context of the growing demand for food and shelter, energy and mineral resources, and their resultant effects on the natural capital of the geoenvironment. Completely revised and updated, this second edition of a bestseller introduces and discusses the concept of stressors and their impacts on the geoenvironment.
See What's New in the Second Edition:
Clear definition of the geoenvironment New tools and remediation technologies, new management methods for geohazards, and enhanced coverage of social and economic sustainability Innovative approaches and techniques for reaching geoenvironmental sustainability More detail on treatment technologies, both in situ and ex situ Discussion on the mitigation of geodisasters Additional sections to discuss sustainability assessment protocols Updated information on models for prediction of contaminant behavior The authors explore the technologies that take into account targets, exposure routes (if applicable), future land use, acceptable risks, legislation, and resultant emissions/discharges in establishing the criteria and tools for evaluating technologies and protocols for environmental management of the impacted land. They then discuss how to choose the correct ones to use in different situations to protect the quality and health of natural resource and capital of the geoenvironment and ensure that these geoenvironmental natural resources and capital remain available for future generations and to develop innovative and sustainable techniques to make land more stable and safer.
Raymond N. Yong (McGill University Montreal Quebec Canada)
, Catherine N. Mulligan (Concordia University
, Masaharu Fukue (Tokai University
Country of Publication:
2nd New edition
13 April 2017
Geoenvironment Management and Sustainability Introduction Impacts on the Geoenvironment Geoenvironment Impacts from Natural Events and Disasters Anthropogenic Forces and Impacts on Geoenvironment Geoenvironment, Ecosystems, and Resources Ecozones and Ecosystems Natural Resources and Biodiversity in the Geoenvironment Geoenvironment Sustainability Geoenvironment as a Natural Resource Base Impacts on the Geoenvironment Impacts due to Population Growth Impacts from Natural Resource Exploitation Stressors and Sources Natural Stressor Sources and Stressors Anthropogenic Stressor Sources and Stressors Geoenvironment Impacts on Soil and Water Resources Impacts on Land Mass and Soil Soil Functionality and Indicators Impacts on Water and Water Resources Sustainability Renewable and Nonrenewable Geoenvironment Natural Resources Rs and Beyond Concluding Remarks References Stressors and Soil Contamination Introduction Stressors and Impacts Stressor Impacts on Soils Hydraulic Mechanical Thermal Chemical Geochemical Biologically Mediated Soil Contamination from Chemical Stressors Contamination and Geoenvironmental Impacts Reference Frame Characterization of Geoenvironmental Impacts Identifying and Assessing for Impact on the Geoenvironment Stressor Sources Nature of Impacts Man-Made and Natural Combinations Wastes, Contaminants, and Threats Inorganic Contaminants Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Chromium (Cr) Copper (Cu) Lead (Pb) Nickel (Ni) Zinc (Zn) Organic Chemical Contaminants Persistent Organic Chemical Pollutants Surface and Subsurface Soils Soil as a Resource Material Nature of Soils Soil Composition Primary Minerals Secondary Minerals Soil Organic Matter Oxides and Hydrous Oxides Carbonates and Sulfates Soil Properties Pertinent to Contaminant Transport and Fate Specific Surface Area and Cation Exchange Capacity Surface Properties Contaminant Transport and Land Contamination Mechanisms of Interaction of Heavy Metal Contaminants in Soil Chemically Reactive Groups of Organic Chemical Contaminants Partitioning of Contaminants and Partition Coefficients Predicting Contaminant Transport Geoenvironmental Land Management Concluding Remarks References Sustainable Water Management Introduction Geoenvironment Sustainable Water Management Water Availability and Quality Uses of Water and Its Importance Hydrological Cycle Human Interference on Infiltration and Runoff Harvesting of Groundwater Excessive Groundwater Abstraction and Land Subsidence Uses of Water Water Quality Characterization and Management Classes of Contaminants Characterizing Chemical Stressors Monitoring of Water Quality Remote Sensing Biomonitoring Sustainable Water Treatment and Management Techniques for Soil and Groundwater Treatment Isolation and Containment Extraction Treatment Techniques Electrokinetic Applications Natural Attenuation Biostimulation Bioaugmentation Enhanced Natural Attenuation In Situ Reactive Regions-Treatment Zones Permeable Reactive Barriers Ex Situ Processes Groundwater and Water Management Evaluation of the Sustainability of Remediation Alternatives Concluding Remarks References Industrial Ecology and the Geoenvironment Introduction Concept of Industrial Ecology Geoenvironmental Life Cycle Assessment Geoenvironment Impacts and Sustainability Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream Industries Mineral Mining and Processing Downstream Industries Metallurgical Industries Metal Fabrication and Processing Nonmetal Mineral Resources Processing Land Environment Impacts and Sustainability Indicators Agroprocessing Industries Leather Tanning Industry Pulp and Paper Industry Palm Oil Industries Land Environment Impact and Sustainability Indicators Petrochemical and Chemical Industries Petrochemical Industries Chemical Industries Stressors and Impacts on Geoenvironment Land Environment Impacts and Sustainability Indicators Service Industries Hospital Wastes and the Geoenvironment Energy Production and the Geoenvironment Fossil Fuel Energy Production Geoenvironment Stressors Nuclear Energy Alternative Energy Sources and the Geoenvironment Contaminating Discharges and Wastes Physicochemical Properties and Processes Solubility Partition Coefficients Vapor Pressure Concluding Remarks References Natural Resources Extraction: Stressors and Impact Management Introduction Stressors and Impacts Mining-Related Activities Biohydrometallurgical Processes Underground In Situ Hydrocarbon Extraction Sulfide Minerals and Acidic Leachates Acid Mine Drainage Arsenic Release Sustainability and Resource Exploitation Resource Extraction and Stressor Impacts Mining-Related Industries Pit Mining Discharges from Beneficiation and Processing: Stressor Sources Solid Waste Materials and Stressors Liquid Waste Streams, Discharge, and Stressors Underground In Situ Hydrocarbon Extraction Fluid Usage and Stressors Tailings Discharges Containment of Tailings Nature of Contained Slurry Tailings Geoenvironment Impacts and Management Geoenvironmental Inventory and Land Use Acid Mine Drainage Impact Mitigation Acid Mine Drainage Management Wetlands Biosorption Slurry Tailings Ponds Impact Management Concluding Remarks Mining Activities Contaminated Water Management Tailings Discharge and Mine Closure References Agricultural-Based Food Production Geoenvironment Stressors Introduction Food Production Geoenvironment Engineering: Sustainable Issues Land Use for Food Production Stressor Impacts on Water and Soil Water Utilization Soil and Water Quality Stressors Chemical Soil Nutrients Pesticides Food Production Stressor Impacts Impact on Health Impact on Biodiversity Managing Geoenvironment Stressor Impacts Examples of Practices to Reduce Stressor Impacts Soil Degradation Soil Erosion Integrated Crop Management Water Quality Source Control Impact of Soil Additives Mitigating Manure Treatment Stressors' Impacts Aerobic Composting Anaerobic Digestion Wetlands Integrated Manure Treatment Tools for Evaluation of Geoenviroment Impacts from Farming Stressor Sources Agricultural Sustainability Development of Analytical Tools Indicators of Agroecosystem Sustainability Concluding Remarks References Urbanization and the Geoenvironment Introduction Land Uses by Urbanization Impact of Urbanization on WEHAB Impact on Water Effect of Traffic and Energy Use Implications on Health Impact of Land Use Impact of Urban Waste Disposal Greenhouse Gases Impact on Ecosystem Biodiversity Impact Avoidance and Risk Minimization Waste Management Contamination Management and Prevention Waste Reduction Recycling Water Resources Management Reduction in Energy Usage, Ozone Depletion, and Greenhouse Gases Minimizing Impact on Biodiversity Altering Transportation Brownfield Redevelopment Sustainability Indicators for Urbanization Mitigation and Remediation of Impacts Mitigation of Impact of Wastes Fresh Kills Urban Dump, New York City, New York, USA Vertical Barriers and Containment Excavation Landfill Bioreactor Natural Attenuation Remediation of Urban Sites Case Study of a Sustainable Urban Area Concluding Remarks References Coastal Marine Environment Sustainability Introduction Coastal Marine Environment and Impacts Geosphere and Hydrosphere Coastal Marine Environment Sedimentation Eutrophication Food Chain and Biological Concentration Contamination of Sediments Some Case Studies of Sediment Contamination Sediment Quality Criteria London Convention and Protocol Quality of Marine Sediments Standards and Guidelines Guidelines Chemicals Background and Bioconcentration Background Concentration Sulfide and Its Effects on Marine Life Toxic Sulfide Guidelines for Sulfide for Surface Water and Sediments Connecting Problems of Geoenvironment and Bioenvironment Heavy Metals Profile of Heavy Metal Concentration Minamata Disease Organic Chemical Contaminants Organotins Chlorinated Organic Microcontaminants Rehabilitation of Coastal Marine Environment Removal of Contaminated Suspended Solids Confined Sea Areas Large Bodies of Water Continuous Removal of Suspended Solids Sand Capping Removal of Contaminated Sediments by Dredging Dredging Treatment of Dredged Sediments Removal of Contaminated Sediments by Resuspension Creation of a Natural Purification System Creation of Sand Beaches and Tidal Flats Creation of Seaweed Swards Sea Disposal of Waste Coastal Erosion Concluding Remarks References Contaminants and Land Environment Sustainability Indicators Introduction Indicators Nature of Indicators Contaminants and Geoenvironment Indicators Prescribing Indicators Assessment of Interaction Impacts Sustainability Concerns Surface Discharge: Hydrological Drainage, Spills, and Dumping Subsurface Discharges Contaminant Transport and Fate Analytical and Predictive Tools Basic Elements of Interactions between Dissolved Solutes and Soil Fractions Elements of Abiotic Reactions between Organic Chemicals and Soil Fractions Reactions in Porewater Surface Complexation and Partitioning Partitioning of Inorganic Contaminants Organic Chemical Contaminants Persistence and Fate Biotransformation and Degradation of Organic Chemicals and Heavy Metals Alkanes, Alkenes, and Cycloalkanes Polycyclic, Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Halogenated Aliphatic and Aromatic Compounds Heavy Metals Prediction of Transport and Fate of Contaminants Mass Transport Transport Prediction Chemical Reactions and Transport Predictions Geochemical Speciation and Transport Predictions Concluding Remarks References Geoenvironment Impact Mitigation and Management Introduction Geoenvironmental Impacts Types of Stressors Impact Mitigation and Management Site Functionality and Restoration Site Functionality Choice and Use of Attributes Site Restoration Stressor Impacts and Mitigation Geo-Disaster Mitigation and Protection Naturally Occurring Events Anthropogenic Actions Chemical Stressors: Contaminants Soils for Contaminant Impact Mitigation and Management Physical and Mechanical Properties Soil Microstructure Controls on Hydraulic Transmission Microstructure, Wetted Surfaces, and Transport Properties Chemical Properties Sorption Cation Exchange Solubility and Precipitation Speciation and Complexation Biological Properties Protozoa Fungi Algae Viruses Bacteria Natural Attenuation Capability of Soils Natural Attenuation by Dilution and Retention Dilution and Retention Biodegradation and Biotransformation Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Alkanes, Alkenes, and Cycloalkanes Gasoline Components BTEX and MTBE Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Halogenated Aliphatic and Aromatic Compounds Metals Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Natural Attenuation and Impact Management Enhancement of Natural Attenuation Capability Soil Buffering Capacity Manipulation Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation Biochemical and Biogeochemical Aids NA Treatment Zones for Impact Mitigation Permeable Reactive Barriers and NA Lines of Evidence Organic Chemical Compounds Metals Evidence of Success Engineered Mitigation-Control Systems Remediation as Control-Management Concluding Remarks References Remediation and Management of Contaminated Soil Introduction Physical Remediation Technologies Isolation Confined Disposal Extraction Processes Physical Separation Soil Vapor Extraction Fracturing Soil Flushing Soil Washing Chemical/Thermal Remediation Oxidation Nanoremediation Electrokinetic Remediation Solidification/Stabilization Vitrification Incineration Thermal Extraction Biological Remediation Slurry Reactors Landfarming Composting Bioleaching Bioconversion Processes Phytoremediation In Situ Bioremediation Bioventing Comparison between Treatment Technologies Treatment Technologies Overview Design of a Remediation Process Case Study Using a Sustainability Approach Case Study for a Benzene-Contaminated Site Concluding Remarks References Sustainable Ground Improvement Technique for Geo-Disaster Mitigation Introduction Soil Origin and Stability Soft Soils and Stability Soft Soil Engineering and Ground Improvement Carbonate Diagenesis: Carbonate as a Cementing Agent Definition of Carbonate Diagenesis Origin and Fate of Carbonates Sea Bottoms and Ocean Floors Coral Reef and Shells in Coastal Areas Microbially Induced Carbonates Formation of Sedimentary Rock due to Carbonate Diagenesis Formations of Carbonate Nodules and Sandstones Calcirudite Carbonate Diagenesis Summary The Case for Using Diagenetic Process in Ground Improvement Artificial Diagenesis Microbes Ureolytic Bacteria Chemical Reactions in Artificial Diagenesis Urease Activity Carbonate Precipitation Definition and Measurement of Carbonate Content Artificial Diagenesis for Geo-Disaster Mitigation Injection of Microbes and Reactive Solution Increased Strength due to Artificial Diagenesis Unconfined Compressive Strength Triaxial Compressive Strength Cone Penetration Resistance Concepts in Design Concluding Remarks References Sustainable Geoenvironmental Engineering Practice Introduction Undeniable Facts Geotechnical to Geoenvironmental Engineering Practice Unsustainable Actions and Events Accidents and Unplanned Events Wastes and Discharges Renewable Geoenvironment Natural Resources Sustainability of Renewable Nonliving Natural Resources Geoenvironmental Management of Soil and Water Resources Adverse Stressor Impacts Management for Sustainability Goals Protection of Soil and Water Resources Water and Soil Quality Indicators Quality and Index Example of SQI Development Water Quality Index WQI Sustainability Practice Examples Rehabilitation of Airport Land Sustainability Indicators: Observations and Comments Sustainable Mining Land Conversion Sustainability Indicators: Observations and Comments Agriculture Sustainability Study Sustainability Indicators: Observations and Comments Petroleum Oil Well Redevelopment Sustainability Indicators: Observations and Comments Mining and Geoenvironmental Sustainability Sustainability Indicators: Observations and Comments Organic Urban Waste Management in Europe Sediment Reuse: Orion Project, Port of New York and New Jersey A Case Study Scheme for Sustainable Geoenvironment Practice: Remediation of Cesium-Contaminated Surface Soils Introduction and Problem Setting Rehabilitation Schemes Segregation of Particles in Water Technological Images Demonstration Pilot Tests on Contaminated Sediments and Soils Full-Scale Application Assessment of Sustainable Practice Success Concluding Remarks: Sensible Practice for a Sustainable Geoenvironment References Index
Dr. Raymond N. Yong is the William Scott Professor Emeritus at McGill University, Canada, and Emeritus Professor at the University of Wales Cardiff (Cardiff University), UK. He has authored and co-authored eleven other textbooks, over five hundred refereed papers in the various journals in the disciplines of Geoenvironmental Engineering and Earth Science, and holds 52 patents. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society (Canada), and a Chevalier de l'Ordre National du Quebec. He and his students were amongst the early researchers in Geoenvironmental Engineering engaged in research on the physico-chemical properties and behaviour of soils, their use in buffer/barriers for HLW (high-level radioactive waste) and HSW (hazardous solid waste) containment and isolation, and restoration/remediation of contaminated sites. He and his colleagues are currently engaged in research on Geoenvironmental sustainability. Dr. Catherine N. Mulligan holds a Concordia Research Chair in Geoenvironmental Sustainability (Tier I) and is Full Professor and Associate Dean, Research and Graduate Studies of the Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science of Concordia University, Canada. She has authored more than 80 refereed papers in various journals, authored, co-edited or co-authored five other books, holds three patents and has supervised to completion more than 40 graduate students. She is the Director of the new Concordia Institute of Water, Energy and Sustainable Systems. The new Institute trains students in sustainable development practices and performs research into new systems, technologies and solutions for environmental sustainability. Dr. Masaharu Fukue is a Full Professor at Tokai University, Japan. He has studied and taught geoenvironmental engineering and geotechnical engineering for 36 years, since 1978, in Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University. He has co-authored two other textbooks, over one hundred refereed papers in various journals, and holds 6 patents. He has recently established the Japanese Geotechnical Association for Housing Disaster Prevention to apply the theory and practice of innovative microbial cementing process (one of his patented process). In addition, another of his Japanese patents (re-suspension technique for sediment rehabilitation) is currently being applied in Fukushima, Japan, in the aftermath of the March, 2011 East-Japan great earthquake and accompanying tsunami. Both projects demonstrate the interdependencies between geoenvironmental engineering and geotechnical engineering, and the need to apply sustainability principles in the practice of both disciplines.