The fun and friendly guide to mastering IBM's Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Written by an author team with a combined 55 years of experience using SPSS, this updated guide takes the guesswork out of the subject and helps you get the most out of using the leader in predictive analysis.
Covering the latest release and updates to SPSS 27.0, and including more than 150 pages of basic statistical theory, it helps you understand the mechanics behind the calculations, perform predictive analysis, produce informative graphs, and more. You'll even dabble in programming as you expand SPSS functionality to suit your specific needs.
Master the fundamental mechanics of SPSS Learn how to get data into and out of the program Graph and analyze your data more accurately and efficiently Program SPSS with Command Syntax Get ready to start handling data like a pro-with step-by-step instruction and expert advice!
, Keith McCormick
John Wiley & Sons Inc
Country of Publication:
10 August 2020
Professional and scholarly
Introduction 1 About This Book 1 About the Fourth Edition 2 Foolish Assumptions 2 Icons Used in This Book 3 Beyond the Book 3 Where to Go from Here 3 Part 1: Getting Started with SPSS 5 Chapter 1: Introducing SPSS 7 SPSS's Job, Our Job, and Your Job 7 SPSS's job 8 Our job 8 Your job 9 Garbage In, Garbage Out: Recognizing the Importance of Good Data 9 Talking to SPSS: Can You Hear Me Now? 12 The graphical user interface 12 Syntax 12 Programmability 13 How SPSS works 13 Getting Help When You Need It 15 Chapter 2: Finding the Best SPSS for You 17 Campus Editions 19 Subscription Plans 20 Commercial Editions 22 What's New in Version 27 24 Chapter 3: Getting to Know SPSS by Running a Simple Session 25 Opening a Dataset 25 Running an Analysis 27 Interpreting Results 30 Creating Graphs 33 Investigating Data 37 Part 2: Getting Data into and out of SPSS 43 Chapter 4: Understanding SPSS Data: Defining Metadata 45 Entering Variable Definitions on the Variable View Tab 46 Name 47 Type 47 Width 51 Decimals 52 Label 52 Values 53 Missing 54 Columns 55 Align 55 Measure 55 Role 56 Entering and Viewing Data Items on the Data View Tab 56 Chapter 5: Opening Data Files 59 Getting Acquainted with the SPSS File Format 59 Reading Simple Data from a Text File 60 Transferring Data from Another Program 65 Reading an Excel file 67 Reading from an unknown program type 68 Saving Data 69 Chapter 6: Getting Data and Results from SPSS 71 Exporting Data to Another Program 71 Navigating SPSS Statistics Viewer 72 Moving SPSS Output to Other Applications 74 Copying and pasting output 74 Exporting output 75 Printing Data 80 Chapter 7: More about Defining Your Data 81 Working with Dates and Times 82 Using the Date and Time Wizard 84 Creating and Using a Multiple-Response Set 86 Copying Data Properties 90 Part 3: Messing with Data in SPSS 95 Chapter 8: The Transform and Data Menus 97 Sorting Cases 97 Selecting the Data You Want to Look At 100 Splitting Data for Easier Analysis 103 Counting Case Occurrences 104 Recoding Variables 107 Recoding into different variables 107 Automatic recoding 110 Binning 113 Optimal Binning 117 Chapter 9: Computing New Variables 119 Calculating a New Variable with a Formula 120 Calculating a New Variable with a Condition 122 Using System Variables 124 Contrasting $Sysmis with SYSMIS 125 Understanding Missing Data in Formulas 127 Efficiently Calculating with Multiple Formulas 129 Chapter 10: Some Useful Functions 133 The LENGTH Function 134 The ANY Function 137 The MEAN Function and Missing Data 139 RND, TRUNC, and MOD 141 Logicals, the MISSING Function, and the NOT Function 143 String Parsing and Nesting Functions 144 Calculating Lags 146 Chapter 11: Combining Files 147 Merging Files by Adding Cases 147 Merging Files by Adding Variables 152 Part 4: Graphing Data 161 Chapter 12: On the Menu: Graphing Choices in SPSS 163 Building Graphs the Chart Builder Way 164 The Gallery tab 164 The Basic Elements tab 168 The Groups/Point ID tab 169 The Titles/Footnotes tab 170 The Element Properties tab 170 The Chart Appearance tab 176 The Options tab 177 Building Graphs with Graphboard Template Chooser 178 Chapter 13: Building Graphs Using Chart Builder 183 Simple Graphs 184 Simple scatterplots 184 Simple dot plots 185 Simple bar graphs 186 Simple error bars 187 Simple histograms 189 Population pyramids 191 Stacked area charts 192 Fancy Graphs 194 Charts with multiple lines 194 Colored scatterplots 196 Scatterplot matrices 198 Stacked bar charts 199 Pie charts 200 Clustered range bar graphs 202 Differenced area graphs 202 Dual-axis graph 204 Fancy Maps Using Graphboard Template Chooser 205 Heat map 206 Choropleth of values 206 Coordinates on a reference map 209 Part 5: Analyzing Data 211 Chapter 14: Using Descriptive Statistics 213 Looking at Levels of Measurement 213 Defining the four levels of measurement 214 Defining summary statistics 215 Focusing on Frequencies for Categorical Variables 217 Understanding Frequencies for Continuous Variables 221 Summarizing Continuous Variables with the Descriptives Procedure 224 Chapter 15: Knowing When Not to Trust Your Data 227 Sampling 227 Understanding Sample Size 228 Testing Hypotheses 229 Calculating Confidence Intervals 231 Conducting In-Depth Hypothesis Testing 232 Using the Normal Distribution 235 Working with Z-Scores 236 Chapter 16: Testing One Group 239 Conducting Inferential Tests 239 Running the Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test 240 Running the One-Sample T-Test Procedure 246 Chapter 17: Showing Relationships between Categorical Variables 251 Running the Crosstabs Procedure 252 Running the Chi-Square Test of Independence 256 Comparing Column Proportions 260 Adding Control Variables 261 Creating a Clustered Bar Chart 264 Chapter 18: Showing Relationships between Continuous Dependent and Categorical Independent Variables 267 Conducting Inferential Tests 268 Using the Compare Means Dialog 268 Running the Independent-Samples T-Test Procedure 269 Comparing the Means Graphically 275 Running the Summary Independent-Samples T-Test Procedure 277 Running the Paired-Samples T-Test Procedure 280 Chapter 19: Showing Relationships between Continuous Variables 285 Viewing Relationships 286 Running the Bivariate Procedure 288 Running the Simple Linear Regression Procedure 292 Part 6: Getting More Advanced with Analyzing Data 301 Chapter 20: Doing More Advanced Analyses 303 Running the One-Way ANOVA Procedure 303 Conducting Post Hoc Tests 311 Comparing Means Graphically 314 Running the Multiple Linear Regression Procedure 315 Viewing Relationships 325 Chapter 21: What Is Normal Anyway? 327 Understanding Nonparametric Tests 328 Understanding Distributions 328 Running a Nonparametric Independent Samples Test 331 Running a Nonparametric Related Samples Test 338 Chapter 22: When to Do What 345 Determining Which Statistical Test to Perform 346 Using Advanced Techniques 350 Part 7: Making SPSS Your Own 351 Chapter 23: Changing Settings 353 General Options 354 Language Options 356 Viewer Options 357 Data Options 358 Currency Options 360 Output Options 361 Chart Options 362 Pivot Tables Options 364 File Locations Options 365 Scripts Options 366 Multiple Imputations Options 368 Syntax Editor Options 369 Privacy Options 370 Chapter 24: Editing Charts and Chart Templates 371 Changing and Editing Axes 372 Changing the axis range 372 Scaling the axis range 373 Changing Style: Lines and Symbols 376 Editing chart lines 376 Editing data points 378 Applying Templates 380 Chapter 25: Editing Tables 383 Working with TableLooks 384 Style Output 387 Pivoting Trays 390 Part 8: Programming SPSS with Command Syntax 393 Chapter 26: Getting Acquainted with Syntax 395 Pasting 396 Performing a Series of Related Compute Statements 399 Labeling 400 Repeatedly Generating the Same Report 400 Chapter 27: Adding Syntax to Your Toolkit 403 Your Wish Is My Command 404 Understanding Keywords 405 Declaring Data 406 Commenting Your Way to Clarity 407 Running Your Code 408 Controlling Flow and Executing Conditionals 410 IF 410 DO IF 411 SELECT IF 412 Part 9: The Part of Tens 413 Chapter 28: Ten (or So) Modules You Can Add to SPSS 415 The Advanced Statistics Module 416 The Custom Tables Module 416 The Regression Module 418 The Categories Module 418 The Data Preparation Module 419 The Decision Trees Module 419 The Forecasting Module 420 The Missing Values Module 421 The Bootstrapping Module 421 The Complex Samples Module 422 The Conjoint Module 422 The Direct Marketing Module 422 The Exact Tests Module 423 The Neural Networks Module 424 Chapter 29: Ten Useful SPSS Resources 425 Supporting Websites for This Book 425 LinkedIn and LinkedIn Groups 426 IBM SPSS Statistics Certification 427 IBM Data Science Community 427 SPSSX-L 427 Online Videos 428 Twitter 429 Live Instruction 430 Asynchronous Instruction and Tutorials 431 SPSS Statistics for Data Analysis and Visualization 432 Chapter 30: Ten SPSS Statistics Gotchas 433 Failing to Declare Level of Measurement 433 Conflating String Values with Labels 434 Failing to Declare Missing Data 435 Failing to Find Add-on Modules and Plug-Ins 435 Failing to Meet Statistical and Software Assumptions 437 Confusing Pasting Syntax with Copy and Paste 438 Thinking You Create Variables in SPSS as You Do in Excel 438 Getting Confused by Listwise Deletion 439 Losing Track of Your Active Dataset 440 Forgetting to Turn Off Select and Split and Weight 441 Index 443
Jesus Salcedo is an independent statistical and data-mining consultant who has been using SPSS products for more than 25 years. He has written numerous SPSS courses and trained thousands of users. Keith McCormick has been all over the world training and consulting in all things SPSS, statistics, and data mining. He now authors courses on the LinkedIn Learning platform and coaches executives on how to effectively manage their analytics teams.