Recent years have seen dramatic changes to the events industry. The influence of social media and global communications technology, increased focus on environmental sustainably and social responsibility, and changes to the economic and cultural landscape have driven rapid expansion and increased competition.
Special Events: Creating and Sustaining a New World for Celebration has been the event planner's essential guide for three decades, providing comprehensive coverage of the theory, concepts and practice of event management. The new Eighth Edition continues to be the definitive guide for creating, organizing, promoting, and managing special events of all kinds. Authors, Seungwon Shawn Lee and Joe Goldblatt, internationally-recognized leaders and educators in the industry, guide readers through all the aspects of professional event planning with their broad understanding of diverse cultures and business sectors. This definitive resource enables current and future event leaders to stretch the boundaries of the profession and meaningfully impact individuals, organizations, and cultures around the globe. Global case studies of high-profile events, such as the PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games and Norway's Constitution Day annual event, complement discussions of contemporary issues surrounding safety, security, and risk management. Each chapter includes Ecologic, Techview, and/or Secureview, mini-case studies, a glossary of terms, plentiful charts, graphs, and illustrations, and links to additional online resources.
, Joe Goldblatt
John Wiley & Sons Inc
Country of Publication:
8th Revised edition
Series: The Wiley Event Management Series
13 July 2020
Foreword xix Preface xxi Acknowledgments xxvii Part 1 Producing Seamless, Secure, and Sustainable (S3) Events 1 Welcome to Greener Event Leadership and Economic Success 3 New Challenges and New Opportunities 5 Once Upon a Time and Not Too Long Ago 6 Anthropological and Sociological Origins 7 Growth Opportunities 8 Public Relations 8 Marketing and Retail Sales 9 Global Business 9 Leisure and Recreation 10 Greener Meetings and Events 11 The Event Planning Profession 12 Celebration 12 Education 12 Marketing 13 Reunion 13 Event Planning Subfields 14 Civic Events 15 Expositions/Exhibitions 16 Fairs and Festivals 16 Hallmark Events 16 Hospitality 17 Meetings and Conferences 18 Retail Events 18 Social Life-Cycle Events 19 Sports Events 20 Tourism 20 Stakeholders 22 A Professional Model for Event Leaders 22 Change, Creativity, and Innovation: The Three Constants in Event Leadership 23 Demographic Change 23 Psychographic Change 23 Career Opportunities 24 Gender Opportunities 26 Educational Opportunities 26 Certification 27 Developing Your Career 28 Mastering Yourself 28 Mastering Time Management 29 Mastering Finance 30 Mastering Modern Technology 31 Mastering Human Resource Skills 32 There is No Substitute for Performance 33 Challenges and Opportunities 33 Business Development 33 Resource Development 34 Lifelong Learning: A User's Guide 35 Getting Focused 36 How to Use This Book 36 Self-Education: The Reading Log 36 Benchmark Checklists 36 EcoLogic 37 TECH/APPVIEWS and SECUREVIEWS 37 Critical Connections for Career Advancement 37 Insights from Global Event Leaders 37 Appendices 38 Role and Scope 38 Summary 40 Key Terms 40 Career Connections 40 Next Steps 41 References 41 2 Changing Paradigms for Greener Leadership and Social Change 42 Research 44 Market Research Techniques 45 Quantitative Pre-Event Research 45 Qualitative Pre-Event Research 45 Mixed Research Methods 47 Validity and Reliability: Producing Credible Pre-Event Research 48 Interpreting and Communicating Research Findings 48 SWOT Analysis: Finding the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of Your Event 49 Design: The Blueprint for Success 51 Brainstorming and Mind Mapping 52 The Creative Process in Event Planning 53 Making the Perfect Host/Guest Match 55 The Approval Process 56 Project Management Systems for Event Leaders 56 Planning Consistently Professional Events 57 Timing 57 Space 58 Tempo 59 Gap Analysis 61 Coordination: Executing the Event Plan 61 Evaluation: The Link to the Next Event 62 Communication: The Tie That Binds All Stakeholders Together 64 Event Management Body of Knowledge, IEMS, and EMICS 65 Synergy: Linking Administration, Coordination, Marketing, and Risk Management 67 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 68 Summary 69 Key Terms 70 Career Connections 70 Next Steps 70 References 70 Part 2 The New Sustainable Event Algorithms 3 Composing the Sustainable Event Plan 73 Designing the Event Environment with Sustainability in Mind 75 Five-Card Draw: Playing the Five Senses 76 Soundscaping 78 Visual Cues 78 Touch 78 Smell 79 Taste 79 Blending, Mixing, and Matching the Senses for Full Effect 80 Bells and Whistles: Amenities That Make the Difference 80 Identifying the Needs of Your Guests 81 Provision for Guests with Different Abilities 82 Implications of Size, Weight, and Volume 82 Securing the Environment 83 Transportation and Parking Factors 83 Effectively Manage the Event Environment 85 Entrances, Pre-Function, and Reception Areas 86 Function Areas 89 Innovative sites 90 Amenities and Furnishings 91 Inside the New World of Event Design 93 Themed Events 99 The Ultimate Planned Event 100 Big Theme Success with Small Budgets 101 Trends in Theme Events 102 Environmental Ecological Sensitivity 103 Recycle Your Success 103 Inspiration and Perspiration 104 Event Strategic Planning 104 Planning to Plan 106 Confirming Validity, Reliability, and Security 106 Timeline 107 Summary 110 Key Terms 110 Career Connections 110 Next Steps 111 References 111 4 Event Leadership and Human Resources Management 112 Event Planner as a Leader: Leadership Styles 113 Leadership Characteristics 113 Integrity 114 Confidence and Persistence 114 Collaborative Decision-Making 115 Communication Skills 117 Open and Continuous Communication 118 Vision 118 Social and Environmental Responsibility 119 Fiscal Responsibility 120 Delegation and Empowerment 120 Human Resource Management 120 Fairness 120 Equality 122 Accessibility: ADA and Global Policies 123 The Relaxed Performance 124 Volunteer Coordination 125 Contract Temporary Employees 126 Organizational Charts 127 Developing Policies, Procedures, and Practices 129 Summary 132 Key Terms 132 Career Connections 133 Next Steps 133 References 133 5 Financial Sustainability 134 Budgeting 136 Financial History 137 General Economy in the United States and the World 137 Reasonable Projected Income 138 Sustainable Funding 138 Typical Income Categories 139 Expenses 139 Structuring Account Codes 141 Finding and Supervising an Accountant 142 Accounting Software 142 Producing Profit 143 Fixed Overhead Expenses 143 Variable Expenses 144 Net Profit versus Gross Profit 144 Break-Even Point 144 Controlling and Reducing Costs 145 Ensuring Positive Event Cash Flow 146 Accounts Payable: Finding the Best Terms 147 Typical Accounts Payable Customs 147 Negotiating Accounts Payable 148 Controlling Purchases 148 Barter/In-Kind Payment 149 Common Event Financial Challenges and Solutions 149 Foreign Exchange Rates 152 Market Conditions 152 Government Policy 153 Typical Events Budgets 154 How to Manage Your Finances during Turbulent Economic Times 160 Contingency and Scenario Planning 160 Summary 162 Key Terms 162 Career Connections 162 Next Steps 163 References 163 Part 3 Event Branding and Bold Delivery 6 Event Vendors as Strategic Partners 167 Creating and Implementing the Design for Your Event 169 Developing Appropriate Resources 169 Working with Suppliers and Vendors 172 Contracting Your Vendor Partners 174 Protecting Your Legal Interests 175 Honoring Ethical Practices 176 Key Contract Components 177 Other Components 177 Rider 179 Changes to the Agreement 180 Terms and Sequence of Execution 180 Other Agreements 180 Other Types of Agreements 180 Permits 180 Licensing 181 Contracts, Permits, and Licenses: A Synergistic Relationship 184 On-Site Coordination 185 Catering Management 185 Location, Location, Location 187 Equipment 187 Utilities 188 Time Constraints 189 Service Styles 189 Logistic Considerations 190 Coordinating Catering Operations 191 Catering Presentation Ideas 192 Selecting the Best Caterer 196 Catering Coordination 197 Catering Trends 200 Coordinating Technical Production Resources (Audiovisual, Lighting, Sound, and Special Effects) 201 Why = What 203 Purposes of Event Production Technology 203 Audiovisual Effects 203 Conducting and Analyzing the Event Site Inspection 204 The Site Inspection 204 Developing the Diagram 205 Determining the Production Schedule 206 Anticipating and Resolving Operational Conflicts 206 Summary 209 Key Terms 210 Career Connections 210 Next Steps 210 References 211 7 The Brand, the Buzz, and Better Success through Event Marketing 212 The Five Ps of Marketing 214 Product 214 Promotion 214 Price 216 Public Relations 217 Place 217 A Sixth P for Event Marketing: Positioning 219 Experiential Event Marketing and Touchpoints 219 Experiential Event Marketing 219 Attendee Touchpoints 220 Internal versus External Event Marketing 220 External Event Marketing 220 Retail Events 220 Fairs and Festivals 221 Launching New Products 222 Event Promotion Techniques 223 Advertising 223 Public Relations 225 Cross-Promotions 226 Street Promotions 226 Stunts 227 Invitation 229 Event Marketing with Technology 229 Events eMarketing 229 Online Consumer-Generated Media (CGM) 231 Online Brand Building 232 Raising Your Search Engine Profile 232 Online Sales and Security 233 Customer Support 233 Market Research 234 Product or Service Development and Testing 235 Web Design and Management 235 Weblogs and Podcasts 236 Video Streaming and YouTube 236 Mobile/Smartphone Event Marketing 237 RFID Technology and Target Marketing 237 Start Your Engines: Creating Greater Marketing Thrust through Commercial Sponsorship 238 Commercial Event Sponsorship 238 Sponsorship Needs Assessment 240 Developing Sponsors 241 Selling Sponsorships 241 Overcoming Sponsor Objections 242 Negotiating Your Sponsorship 243 Closing the Sponsorship Sale 243 Servicing Sponsorship Sales 244 Evaluating Sponsorships 245 Timing is Everything 245 Evaluating Your Event Marketing Campaign 246 Coding Your Event Marketing Materials 246 Online versus Other Event Marketing Channels 247 Other Marketing Evaluation Tools 247 Summary 251 Key Terms 251 Career Connections 252 Next Steps 252 References 252 8 Ensuring a Safer and More Secure Event Environment 253 Introduction 254 Ensuring the Safety and Security of Event Stakeholders 255 Protecting Your Financial Investment 256 Risk-Averse Procedures 256 Organizing a Risk-Assessment Meeting 257 Before the Meeting 258 Safety Meeting and Other Considerations 260 Inspections 261 Documentation and Due Diligence 262 Obtaining Insurance 262 Risk Control 264 Differences among Morals, Laws, and Ethics 267 Common Ethical Challenges in the Special Events Industry 268 Avoiding or Addressing Ethical Problems 268 Establishing Policies and Procedures for Ethical Issues 270 Inclusiveness is an Ethical Responsibility 270 Identifying and Using Industry Ethical Guidelines 271 Appointing an Ethical Brain Trust to Guide Your Ethical Decision-Making 271 Including Everyone: Arranging and Organizing Activities 272 Developing Special Events within Events 273 Organizing and Conducting Spouse and Partner Programs 274 Complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act and Similar International Laws and Regulations 275 Future Trends in CSR 277 Why is CSR Important in the Special Events Industry? 278 How You May Contribute to the Evolution of CSR with Your Future Events 279 Monitor Changing Social Expectations 280 Use the Internet to Expand Your Event's Global Social Influence 280 Secure the Commitment of Your Clients, Vendors, and Sponsors to Promote Socially Responsible Events 280 Identify and Liaise with CSR Counterparts in Government, Nongovernmental, and Other Stakeholders 280 Ensure That Your CSR Influence is Felt Both Internally and Externally 281 Measure and Evaluate Your Event's Social Responsibility Index 281 Create Socially Responsible Programs for Conventions, Festivals, Meetings, and Other Events 282 Conduct Social Responsibility Orientation and Training Programs for Your Event Staff and Volunteers 282 Special Events and Human Rights 282 Promote Your Socially Responsible Outcomes to Others 283 Summary 285 Key Terms 285 Career Connections 285 Next Steps 286 References 286 Part 4 Trends and Triumphs 9 The Virtual View of Live Events 289 Virtual versus Live: Digital versus Live Events 290 The Historic Development of Virtual Events 291 Why Produce Digital Content? 292 Examples of Digital Meetings and Events 294 Delivery of Digital Event 294 Types of Virtual Digital Events by Delivery Technology 294 Audio Conferencing 294 Video Webcasting 295 Webcast 295 Webinar 295 Live Streaming 295 Distance or Blended Learning? 296 Creating New Event Revenue through Webcasts and Webinars 296 Credentials and Qualifications 298 How to Charge 298 Tracking and Encouraging the Progress of Learners 299 New Approach to Marketing Digital and Virtual Events 300 Old Wine in New Bottles? 301 The Vision for Leadership Excellence 301 Making the Case 302 A New Kind of Learning 303 The Return on Learning Investment 304 Beyond Deloitte 305 The Future of Virtual and Live Events 305 Summary 307 Key Terms 309 Career Connections 309 Next Steps 309 References 310 10 Reinventing a Joyful and Sustainable Career 311 Environmental Sustainability 313 Defining Greener Events 314 Sustainability 315 Ecotourism 315 Fair Trade 316 Outgreening and Corporate Social Responsibility 317 Financial Savings 317 Event Pollution 318 Your First Five Steps to Creating More Sustainable Events 318 1. Go Paperless 319 2. Turn Off the Lights 319 3. Turn Down the Heat 319 4. Buy Greener 320 5. Use Silverware 320 Cultural Sustainability 320 Local Cultures 320 Local Economies 321 Promoting Your Greener Event 321 Toward a Greener Tomorrow 322 Education 323 A Body of Knowledge 324 Education and Your Career in Planned Events 325 Professional Experience 327 Career Paths 327 Finding an Internship or Externship 328 Certification 329 Recertification 330 Credentials 330 Power Tools 332 New Hiring Practices 335 Life and Career 335 From Invention to Reinvention 336 How May Planned Events Help Create, Sustain, and Celebrate a New World? 339 Summary 343 Key Terms 343 Career Connections 344 Next Steps 344 References 344 Part 5 Best Practices an Real World Event Experiences 11 Global, National, and Local Best Practices in Event Leadership 347 Best Global Event 348 The SXSW Global Phenomenon of Weird Practices that Work Wonders around the Corner and throughout the World 348 Best National Event 351 Norwegian Constitution Day Events, Oslo, Norway, and More 351 History of the Norway Constitution Day 351 The Highlight: Children's Parades and More 351 Brief Timeline of a Full Day of National Day Events (in Oslo) 352 Celebration across the Country 353 Celebration of Norway Constitution Day Abroad 353 Be Aware: Closures of Businesses 353 Best Local Event 354 Celebrate Fairfax! Festival, Fairfax, VA, USA 354 About the Hosting Place and Surrounding Areas 354 Overview of the Festival 354 History of the Celebrate Fairfax! Festival and Its Organizing Bodies 354 Highlights of the Festival 355 Best Practice with Think-out-of-the-box Ideas 355 Recognition and Awards 355 Year-long Celebrations 355 12 Twenty Real-World Event Management Experiences and Mini Case Studies 357 Advertising and Marketing 358 Attractions 358 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 359 Education 359 Entertainment 359 Environmental Sustainability 360 Expositions and Exhibitions 360 Festivals 360 Finance 361 Gaming 361 Government 361 Hotels 362 Incentive 362 Information Technology 362 Meetings 363 Responding to Requests for Proposals (RFPs) for Independent Event Managers 363 Safety, Security, and Terrorism 363 Satisfying the Various Players in a Corporation 364 Social Event (Wedding) 364 Virtual Event 364 Appendices 1 to 19 and accompanying Image Gallery are available online Glossary G-1 Index I-1