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Animal Models and Human Reproduction

Heide Schatten Gheorghe M. Constantinescu

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Hardback

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John Wiley & Sons Inc
10 March 2017
Our knowledge of reproductive biology has increased enormously in recent years on cellular, molecular, and genetic levels, leading to significant breakthroughs that have directly benefitted in vitro fertilization (IVF) and other assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in humans and animal systems.

Animal Models and Human Reproduction presents a comprehensive reference that reflects the latest scientific research being done in human reproductive biology utilizing domestic animal models. Chapters on canine, equine, cow, pig, frog, and mouse models of reproduction reflect frontier research in placental biology, ovarian function and fertility, non-coding RNAs in gametogenesis, oocyte and embryo metabolism, fertilization, cryopreservation, signal transduction pathways, chromatin dynamics, epigenetics, reproductive aging, and inflammation. Chapters on non-human primate models also highlight recent advancements into such issues as human in vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

This book offers animal scientists, reproductive biology scientists, clinicians and practitioners, invaluable insights into a wide range of issues at the forefront of human reproductive health.
Edited by:   Heide Schatten, Gheorghe M. Constantinescu
Imprint:   John Wiley & Sons Inc
Country of Publication:   United States
Dimensions:   Height: 259mm,  Width: 185mm,  Spine: 29mm
Weight:   1.266kg
ISBN:   9781118881606
ISBN 10:   1118881605
Pages:   600
Publication Date:   10 March 2017
Audience:   Professional and scholarly ,  Undergraduate
Format:   Hardback
Publisher's Status:   Active
List of Contributors xv 1 Anatomy of the Reproductive System 1 Gheorghe M. Constantinescu 1.1 Male Genital Organs in Domestic Mammals 1 1.2 Female Genital Organs in Domestic Mammals 5 1.3 The Genital System in Domestic Mammals Species by Species 9 1.4 Genital Organs in Laboratory Mammals 35 References 56 2 Anatomy of Mammalian (Endocrine) Glands Controlling the Reproduction 59 Gheorghe M. Constantinescu 2.1 The Hypothalamus Including the Hypophysis 59 2.2 The Cerebral Epiphysis 61 2.3 The Thyroid Gland 61 2.4 The Adrenal Glands 62 2.5 The Sexual Glands 63 2.6 The Liver 63 References 63 3 Models for Investigating Placental Biology 65 Laramie Pence and Bhanu P. Telugu 3.1 Introduction 65 3.2 Classification of Placenta 66 3.3 Development of Human Placenta 69 3.4 Modeling Placental Development and Diseases of Placental Origin 73 3.5 Summary 82 References 82 4 Early Developmental Programming of the Ovarian Reserve, Ovarian Function, and Fertility 91 Francesca Mossa, Siobhan W. Walsh, Alex C.O. Evans, Fermin Jimenez-Krassel, and James J. Ireland 4.1 Introduction 91 4.2 Impact of Prenatal Environmental Challenges on Fetal Oogonia (Germ Cells) 92 4.3 Impact of Prenatal Environmental Challenges on Fetal Follicle/Oocyte Numbers (Healthy versus Atretic) and Oocyte Quality 94 4.4 Impact of Prenatal Environmental Challenges on the Ovarian Reserve (Total Number of Morphologically Healthy Follicles/Oocytes in Ovaries) in Offspring 95 4.5 Impact of Prenatal Environmental Challenges on Ovarian Function (e.g., Pituitary Gonadotropin Secretion, Ovarian Hormone/Growth Factor Production, Response to Gonadotropins, Follicle Development, Irregular Reproductive Cycles, and Ovulation Rate) in Offspring 98 4.6 Impact of Prenatal Environmental Challenges on Fertility (as Measured by Conception Rates, Fecundity, or Age at Puberty or Menopause) in Offspring 100 4.7 Summary and Conclusion 101 References 102 5 Small Non-Coding RNAS in Gametogenesis 109 Lukasz Smorag and D. V. Krishna Pantakani 5.1 Small Non-Coding RNAs 109 5.2 Function of sncRNAs in Gametogenesis 109 Acknowledgment 119 References 119 6 The Ovarian Follicle of Cows as a Model for Human 127 Marc-Andre Sirard 6.1 Introduction 127 6.2 A Similar Physiology of Folliculogenesis 128 6.3 Assisted Reproduction 131 6.4 Testing the Competence Hypothesis 136 6.5 Conclusion 136 References 136 7 Production of Energy and Determination of Competence: Past Knowledge, Present Research, and Future Opportunities in Oocyte and Embryo Metabolism 145 Jason R. Herrick, Elena Silva, and Rebecca L. Krisher 7.1 Introduction 145 7.2 Measuring Metabolism 145 7.3 The Relationship Between Oocyte Metabolism and Quality 148 7.4 Embryo Metabolism 152 7.5 Metabolic Biomarkers 157 7.6 Toward Personalized Culture Media: Formulating Media for Specific Maternal Conditions 158 7.7 Summary 161 References 162 8 Signal Transduction Pathways in Oocyte Maturation 177 Francois J. Richard, Nicolas Santiquet, Annick Bergeron, and Daulat Raheem Khan 8.1 Introduction 177 8.2 Phosphodiesterase 181 8.3 Gap Junction Communications 192 8.4 Metabolic Switch (AMPK) 193 8.5 Conclusion 198 References 198 9 Pig Models of Reproduction 213 B.R. Mordhorst and R.S. Prather 9.1 Introduction 213 9.2 Early Embryonic Development 213 9.3 Oocyte Maturation 215 9.4 Fertilization 216 9.5 Tubouterine Contractility 216 9.6 Development to the Blastocyst Stage 216 9.7 Pregnancy and Developmental Programming 217 9.8 Puberty 222 9.9 Reproductive Disease 223 9.10 Summary 223 Acknowledgments 223 References 223 10 The Mare as an Animal Model for Reproductive Aging in the Woman 235 Elaine M. Carnevale 10.1 Introduction 235 10.2 Ovarian Activity and Reproductive Cycles 236 10.3 The Follicle 238 10.4 Fertility 239 10.5 The Oocyte 240 10.6 Conclusions 242 References 242 11 Spotlight on Reproduction in Domestic Dogs as a Model for Human Reproduction 247 Shirley J. Wright 11.1 Introduction 247 11.2 Dog Reproduction 255 11.3 Dog-Assisted Reproductive Technology 321 11.4 Dog Contraception 328 11.5 The Dog as a Model for Human Reproduction 328 11.6 Concluding Statements 332 Acknowledgments 333 References 333 12 Animal Models of Inflammation During Pregnancy 359 Karen E. Racicot and Keith E. Latham 12.1 Introduction 359 12.2 Local Inflammation of the Pregnant Female Reproductive Tract 360 12.3 Systemic Inflammation During Pregnancy 361 12.4 Genetic Models and Cellular Manipulation to Study Inflammation During Pregnancy 365 12.5 Inflammation During Pregnancy and Offspring Disease 370 12.6 Perspectives and Conclusions 372 Acknowledgments 373 References 373 13 Practical Approaches, Achievements, and Perspectives in the Study on Signal Transduction in Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization: Focusing on the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevisas an Animal Model 383 Ken-ichi Sato 13.1 Introduction to Reproductive Biology of Frog Oocytes and Eggs 383 13.2 Practical Approaches 383 13.3 Achievements and Perspectives 395 Acknowledgments 396 Appendix 396 References 399 14 Prezygotic Chromosomal Examination of Mouse Spermatozoa 401 Hiroyuki Watanabe and Hiroyuki Tateno 14.1 Introduction 401 14.2 Procedure of Sperm Chromosome Screening 402 14.3 Practical Use of SCS Before Fertilization 404 14.4 Conclusion 406 Acknowledgments 406 Addendum 406 References 406 15 Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Mammalian Sperm Acrosomal Exocytosis 409 Florenza A. La Spina, Cintia Stival, Dario Krapf, and Mariano G. Buffone 15.1 Introduction 409 15.2 Structure of the Acrosome 409 15.3 Intermediate Stages of Exocytosis 412 15.4 Sperm Capacitation Prepare the Sperm to Undergo Acrosomal Exocytosis 412 15.5 Physiological Site for the Occurrence of Acrosomal Exocytosis 414 15.6 SNARES and Other Proteins from the Fusion Machinery 416 15.7 Hyperpolarization 417 15.8 Actin Cytoskeleton 417 15.9 Calcium 418 References 419 16 Sperm Chromatin Dynamics Associated with Male Fertility in Mammals 427 Naseer A. Kutchy, Sule Dogan, Abdullah Kaya, Arlindo Moura, and Erdogan Memili 16.1 Introduction 427 16.2 Sperm Chromatin Structure Modulates Sperm Nuclear Shape and Function 429 16.3 The Bull Is a Suitable Model for the Study of Male Fertility in Humans 430 16.4 Conclusions and Prospects 430 Acknowledgments 431 References 431 17 Epigenome Modification and Ubiquitin-Dependent Proteolysis During Pronuclear Development of the Mammalian Zygote: Animal Models to Study Pronuclear Development 435 Jan Nevoral and Peter Sutovsky 17.1 Introduction 435 17.2 Milestones of Pronuclear Development 436 17.3 Nuclear Envelope, Nuclear Pore Complexes, and Nuclear Lamina Changes During Pronuclear Development 438 17.4 Molecular Mechanism of Paternal and Maternal Pronucleus Biogenesis 440 17.5 Role of UPS in Pronuclear Biogenesis 442 17.6 Posttranslational Modifications of Pronuclear Histones 443 17.7 Sirtuin Family Histone Deacetylases in Gametogenesis and Development 446 17.8 Clinical and Technological Considerations 447 17.9 Conclusions 450 Acknowledgments 450 References 450 18 Alterations of the Epigenome Induced by the Environment in Reproduction 467 Zhao-Jia Ge, Shen Yin, and Heide Schatten 18.1 Introduction 467 18.2 Epigenetic Reprogramming 467 18.3 Environment and Epigenetic Alterations 470 18.4 Animal Models Used in Reproduction to Research Epigenetic Alterations Induced by the Environment 472 18.5 Effects of Environment on Epigenetic Modifications in Humans 475 18.6 Epigenetics and Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) 475 18.7 Priorities for the Future 476 Acknowledgments 476 References 476 19 Toward Development of Pluripotent Porcine Stem Cells by Road Mapping Early Embryonic Development 485 Stoyan Petkov, Kristine Freude, Kaveh Mashayekhi, Poul Hyttel, and Vanessa Hall 19.1 Introduction 485 19.2 Current Status on the Pluripotent State in the Pig Embryo 489 19.3 Current Status of the Establishment of Porcine Embryonic Stem Cells (pESCs) 491 19.4 Current Status in Establishment of Porcine-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 494 19.5 Future Perspectives: Use of Global Profiling on Pluripotent Cells from Pig Embryo and Pluripotent Stem Cells 499 19.6 Discussion and Conclusions 501 Acknowledgments 502 References 502 20 Applications of Metabolomics in Reproductive Biology 509 Ana Luiza Cazaux Velho, Rodrigo Oliveira, Thu Dinh, Arlindo Moura, Abdullah Kaya, and Erdogan Memili 20.1 Introduction 509 20.2 Metabolomics and Reproductive Biology 510 20.3 Metabolomics Studies in Large Animals as Models for Humans 513 20.4 Conclusions and Future Prospects 513 Acknowledgments 514 Conflict of Interest 514 References 514 21 Cryopreservation of Mammalian Oocytes 519 Muhammad Anzar 21.1 Principles of Cryopreservation 519 21.2 Cryopreservation of Mammalian Oocytes 522 Acknowledgments 542 Abbreviations 543 References 543 Index 557

About the Editors Heide Schatten Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, USA Gheorghe M. Constantinescu Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, USA

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