Radiation and the effects of radioactivity have been known for more than 100 years. International research spanning this period has yielded a great deal of information about radiation and its biological effects and this activity has resulted in the discovery of many applications in medicine and industry including cancer therapy, medical diagnostics, and quality control during manufacturing.
After Chernobyl, there has been a tendency to regard radiation as harmful, even in situations where the doses are equal to or below the natural level. Radiation and Health presents a balanced view of the nature of radiation and its existence in the environment, as well as discussing its effects on plants, animals and humans. It also provides a survey of knowledge to date, from the discovery and basic theory of radiation and radioactivity to more recent developments concerned with the nature of radiation and its effect on biological systems. Numerous examples, exercises, and diagrams are included to make this book accessible to non-specialists.
Radiation and Health provides information about the uses and consequences of ionizing radiation in medicine, research, and industry. It offers a basis for applying some basic calculations and comparing the results, and identifies risk factors to help establish rules and regulations that limit radiation doses, both to the individual and to society.
Thormod Henriksen (University of Oslo Norway)
, David H. Maillie (University of Rochester
, New York
Country of Publication:
05 September 2002
Professional and scholarly
Professional and scholarly
Further / Higher Education
RADIATION IS DISCOVERED Introduction Radioactivity X-Rays Ionizing Radiation WHAT IS RADIOACTIVITY? Radioactive Elements The Nature of Radioation The Radioactive Series The Energy of the Radiation Description of a radioactive source Alpha Radiation The Penetration of Radiation RADIOACTIVE DECAY LAWS Half-life The Physical Half-life The Laws of Radioactive Decay Biological Half-life Radio-ecological Half-life ACTIVITY AND DOSE Activity in Becquerel Radiation Dose Equivalent Dose Effective Equivalent Dose Other Dose Units ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES The Discovery Fission Activation analysis THE MEASUREMENT OF RADIATION Introduction Detection Instruments The Energy of the Radiation Dose Measurements Radiation Protection NATURAL RADIATION Introduction Cosmic Radiation Natural Gamma Radiation Internal Radioactivity (sources inside the body) Radon Summary RADIATION IN MEDICINE AND RESEARCH Radiation sources X-rays in Medicine Therapy Other Diagnostic Methods Radiation Therapy Research Isotopes Used in Industry Sterilizing Medical Equipment Irradiation of Food Products Control of Insects Doses Due to the Medical Used of Radiation NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND REACTOR ACCIDENTS Nuclear Bomb Tests Nuclear Tests on Novaja Zemlja The Chernobyl Accident Pollution Around Chernobyl Chernobyl Conclusions Other Reactor Accidents RADIATION AND HEALTH. LARGE DOSES Dose-Effect Curves What is a Large Dose? The Use of Large Doses LD50 Dose Acute Radiation Sickness SMALL DOSES AND RISK ESTIMATES The Dose-Effect Curve How Can We Get the Needed Information? Experimental Information on Radiation and Cancer Radiation-induced Cancer in Animals Epidemiological Studies Hiroshima and Nagasaki Conclusions about the Dose-Effect Curve Risk Analyses RADIATION BIOLOGY - MECHANISMS Radiation Biophysics Radiation Chemistry Radiation Damage to Proteins and DNA DNA Radiation Damage to Cells Protection Against Radiation Oxygen Effect and Sensitizing Compounds Radiation and Chromosomal Aberrations Repair Processes Adaptive Response Conclusion Genetic Damage Radiation During Pregnancy RADIATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT Use of Radiation in Society Nuclear Power Nuclear Power and Radioactive Releases Reprocessing Treatment and Storage Nuclear Power and Safety Radioactivity in the Ocean Radiation Doses to Fish Plutonium and Chemical Compounds Remedial Action Closing Remarks EXERCISES, EXAMPLES AND SCENARIOS ADDITIONAL READING, REFERENCES, AND INDEX