Preservation of Archaeological Remains In-Situ: A Reader reveals to the heritage practitioner (archaeologist, conservator, inspector of ancient monuments, conservation officer) and archaeology and heritage studies student, the issues surrounding the preservation of archaeological remains in-situ. Offering contemporary and classic readings, it provides professionals and students alike with a strong understanding of contemporary preservation practice. The book illustrates the wide variety of threats to in-situ archaeological remains, develops the concept of a holistic appreciation of the threats, and appreciates the need to prioritise the appropriate forms of response and to developing appropriation mitigation strategies. Using a careful balance of sources, some technical, some theoretical, some practical as well as case studies to explore the threats and their mitigation, it provides a holistic statement on preserving archaeological remains in-situ.
Chris Caple (University of Durham UK)
Country of Publication:
27 May 2016
Professional and scholarly
0 Introduction to Preservation in Situ Survival, Loss and Ideas of Preservation 1 Survival, A History of the Perception of the Survival of Archaeological Remains 1.1 Fiorelli, G. 1860-4, Pompeianarum Antiquitatum Historia (3v), in (trans?) A.E Cooley and M.G.L. Cooley 2002 Pompeii: a Sourcebook, Abingdon: Routledge (selected passages) 1.2 The Times, November 30th, 1922, Page 13, `An Egyptian Treasure'. Image from the Times, January 30th, 1923, `Interior of Tutankhamun's Tomb: First Pictures'. 1.3 Glob, P.V. 1969 The Bog People, London: Faber and Faber (selected passages) 2 Threats and Losses the Spur to Preservation 2.1 Coles, J.M. 1987 The Preservation of Archaeological Sites by Environmental Intervention, in H. Hodges ed. In-Situ Archaeological Conservation, Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia and J. Paul Getty Trust, 32-55 2.2 Darvill, T. and Fulton, A. 1998 The Monuments at Risk Survey of England 1995, London: Bournemouth University and English Heritage (selected passages) 2.3 Rimmer, M.B. and Caple, C. 2008 `Estimating Artefact Loss: A comparison of metal artefact loss rates through in-situ decay and loss of ancient monument sites in England', in H. Kars, R.M.van Herringen (eds.) Preserving Archaeological Remains In-Situ, proceedings of the 3rd Conference, 7-9 December 2006, Amsterdam, Amsterdam: VU University Amsterdam, 65-74 2.4 Kenward, H. and Hall, A. 2000 `Decay of Delicate Organic Remains in Shallow Urban Deposits: Are We at a Watershed?', Antiquity 74, 519-525 Approaches to Preservation and Conservation 3 Knowledge of the Burial Environment 3.1 Darwin, C. 1881 The formation of vegetable mould through the action of worms with observations on their habits, London: Faber and Faber (selected passages) 3.2 Cornwall I. 1958 Soils for the Archaeologist, London: Phoenix House (selected passages) 3.3 Bell, M. 1996 Discussion and Conclusions - Chapter 14, in M. Bell, P.J. Fowler and S.W. Hillson, The Experimental Earthwork Project 1960-1992, CBA Research Report 100, York: CBA , 228-246 3.4 Bass Becking, L.G.M., Kaplan, I.R. and Moore, D. 1960 Limits of the natural environment in terms of plant and oxidation and reduction potentials. The Journal of Geology 68 (1960), 243-284 3.5 Painter, T.J. 1995 'Chemical and Microbiological Aspects of the Preservation Process in Sphagnum Peat', in, R. Turner and R. Scaife, (eds) Bog Bodies: New Discoveries and New Perspectives. London: BMP, 88-99 4 Legislation and Organisations 4.1 Cleere, H. 1989 `Introduction: the rationale of archaeological heritage management' in H. Cleere (ed.) Archaeological Heritage Management in the Modern World, London: Routledge. 4.2 Willems, W.J.H. `Archaeological Resource Management and Preservation', in H. Kars, R.M.van Herringen (eds.) Preserving Archaeological Remains In-Situ, proceedings of the 3rd Conference, 7-9 December 2006, Amsterdam, Amsterdam: VU University Amsterdam. 283-290 5 Conservation Theory 5.1 Morris, W. 1877 `The Principles of the Society (for the Protection of Ancient Buildings) asset forth upon its Foundation', Builder 35 (2 pages) 5.2 ICOMOS 1966 International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (The Venice Charter 1964) 5.3 Council of Europe 1992 European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage, Valletta 1992 5.4 UNESCO 1994 Nara Document on Authenticity 5.5 Australia ICOMOS 1999 The Burra Charter Problems of Decay and Conservation Measures by Site Type 6 Decay and Mitigation of Stone Ruins 6.1 Ashurst, J. and Shalom, A. 2007 `Short Story: the demise, discovery, destruction and salvation of a ruin', in, J. Ashurst, Conservation of Ruins, London: Butterworth Heinemann . xxx-xlii 6.2 Ashurst, J. and Burns, C. 2007 `Philosophy, technology and craft', in, J. Ashurst, Conservation of Ruins, London: Butterworth Heinemann. 82-145 6.3 Coppack, G. 1999 `Setting and Structure: The conservation of Wigmore Castle', in, G. Chitty and D. Baker (eds) Managing Historic Sites and Buildings, London: Routledge. 61-70 7 Decay and Mitigation of Earthen Architecture Remains 7.1 Cooke, L. 2010 Conservation Approaches to Earthen Architecture in Archaeological Contexts, BAR International Series 2147, Oxford: Archaeopress, 39-42 7.2 Fodde, E., Watanabe, K. and Fujii Y. 2007 `Preservation of Earthen sites in remote Areas: the Buddhist Monastery of Ajina Tepa, Tajikistan', Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites 9, 4, 194-218 8 Decay and Mitigation of Earthworks 8.1 Streeten, A. 1994 `Managing Ancient Earthworks - Diagnosis, cure and Prevention of Erosion', in, A.Q. Berry and I.W. Brown (eds) Erosion on Archaeological Earthworks: its prevention, Control and Repair, Mold: Clwyd County Council, 5-15 9 Decay and Mitigation of Fragile and Buried Sites 9.1 Wildesen, L.E. 1982 The Study of Impacts on Archaeological Sites, Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 5, 51-96 10 Decay and Mitigation of Rock Art and Cave Sites 10.1 Rossi, A. and Webb, R.E. 2007 `The Consequences of Allowing Unrestricted Tourist Access at an Aboriginal Site in a Fragile Environment: the Erosive Effect of Trampling', Conservation and Managements of Archaeological Sites 9, 4, 219-236 11 Decay and Mitigation of Waterlogged Sites 11.1 Caple C., Dungworth D. and Clogg P. 1997 `The Assessment and Protection of Archaeological Organic Materials in Waterlogged Burial Environments' in Proceedings of the 6th Waterlogged Organic Archaeological Materials Conference, York 1996. eds. P. Hoffmann, T. Grant, J.A. Spriggs and T. Daley, 57-72 11.2 Coles, B. 2004 `Steps Towards the Heritage Management of Wetlands in Europe', Journal of Wetland Archaeology 4, 183-198 Generic Mitigation Measures: Visitor and Land Management 12 Generic Mitigation Measures - Visitor Management 12.1 Demas, M., Maekawa, S. Bell, J. and Agnew, N. 2010 `Sustainable Visitation at the Mogao Grottoes: A Methodology for Visitor Carrying Capacity' , in N. Agnew (ed.) Conservation of Ancient Sites on the Silk Road, Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute, 160-169. 13 Generic Mitigation Measures - Shelters 13.1 Agnew, N. 2001 Methodology, `Conservation Criteria and Performance Evaluation for Archaeological Site Shelters', Conservation and Managements of Archaeological Sites 5, 1&2, 7-18 14 Generic Mitigation Measures - Reburial 14.1 Demas, M., Agnew, N., Waane, S., Podany, J., Bass, A. and Kamamba, D. `Preservation of the Laetoli Hominid Trackway in Tanzania', in: Roy, A. and Smith, P. (eds.) Archaeological Conservation and its Consequences: 1996 IIC Copenhagen Congress. IIC, London (1996), 38-42. 14.2 Corfield M. 2004 Saving the Rose Theatre. England's first Managed and Monitored Reburial, Conservation and Managements of Archaeological Sites 6, 3&4, 305-314 14.3 Ford, D., Demas, M., Agnew, N., Blanchette, R., Maekawa, S., Romero Taylor, M. and Dowdy, K. 2004 `Chaco Canyon Reburial Programme', Conservation and Managements of Archaeological Sites 6, 3&4, 177-202
Chris Caple, currently a Senior Lecturer at Durham University, has been director of the postgraduate programme in artefact conservation at Durham since 1988. He is active teaching, researching and publishing in conservation, analysing and researching ancient artefacts and has been directing and publishing archaeological excavations since 1982.