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Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals

Carlton L. Gyles John F. Prescott J. Glenn Songer Charles O. Thoen



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Iowa State University Press
06 May 2010
Veterinary bacteriology, virology, parasitology
Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals, Fourth Edition captures the rapid developments in understanding the mechanisms of virulence of the major bacterial pathogens of animals. Now including a color plate section, the book presents an overview of pathogenesis, including relevant events that occur in the herd or flock and its environment, and activities that take place at the cellular and molecular levels. With contributions from 64 experts in the field, this book serves as a great reference for graduate students in veterinary medicine and animal science, microbiologists, virologists and pathologists.
Edited by:   Carlton L. Gyles, John F. Prescott, J. Glenn Songer, Charles O. Thoen
Imprint:   Iowa State University Press
Country of Publication:   United States
Edition:   4th Edition
Dimensions:   Height: 254mm,  Width: 199mm,  Spine: 42mm
Weight:   1.420kg
ISBN:   9780813812373
ISBN 10:   0813812372
Pages:   662
Publication Date:   06 May 2010
Audience:   Professional and scholarly ,  Undergraduate
Format:   Hardback
Publisher's Status:   Active
Preface xiii Contributors xv 1 Themes in Bacterial Pathogenic Mechanisms 3 C. L. Gyles and J. F. Prescott Introduction 3 Basic Steps in Pathogenesis Continue to Provide a Sound Foundation 3 Concepts of Virulence are Being Refined 6 Host-Bacteria Communication is Critical 7 Pathogenesis in the Post-Genomic Era 10 Evolution of Pathogens-The Path Traveled May Provide Insights into the Road Ahead 11 2 Subversion of the Immune Response by Bacterial Pathogens 15 D. C. Hodgins and P. E. Shewen Introduction 15 Subversion of Innate Immune Responses 16 Subversion of Adaptive Immunity 25 Conclusion 28 3 Evolution of Bacterial Virulence 33 P. Boerlin What are Pathogens and How do They Emerge? 33 Bacterial Fitness and Virulence 35 Sources of Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Genome Plasticity 36 Pathogenicity Islands 37 Bacteriophages and Their Role in Pathogen Evolution and Virulence 38 Illustrations of Virulence Evolution 39 Conclusion 45 4 Streptococcus 51 J. F. Timoney Introduction 51 Streptococcus agalactiae 53 Streptococcus dysgalactiae 55 Streptococcus uberis 55 Streptococcus equi 57 Streptococcus zooepidemicus 62 Streptococcus canis 63 Streptococcus porcinus 64 Streptococcus suis 65 Streptococcus pneumoniae 67 Gaps in Knowledge and Anticipated Developments 68 5 Staphylococcus 75 K. Hermans, L. A. Devriese, and F. Haesebrouck Introduction 75 Characteristics of the Organism 75 Pathogenic Staphylococcus Species 76 Sources of the Bacterium 77 Bacterial Virulence Factors 78 Pathogenesis 81 Types of Disease and Pathologic Changes 82 Interactions between the Bacterium and Host Defenses 83 Immunity and Its Impact on Pathogenesis 84 Conclusions: New Developments 85 6 Bacillus anthracis91 J. Mogridge, S. Shadomy, and P. Turnbull Introduction 91 Etiology, Ecology, and Epidemiology 91 Symptomatology and Diagnosis 94 Bacteriology 95 Pathogenesis 96 Immunology 102 Control 107 Future Directions 107 7 Mycobacterium 113 I. Olsen, R. G. Barletta, and C. O. Thoen Introduction 113 Characteristics and Sources of the Organisms 113 Bacterial Virulence Factors 115 Pathogenesis 117 Immunity 119 Gaps in Knowledge and Anticipated Developments 126 8 Corynebacterium and Arcanobacterium 133 R. Moore, A. Miyoshi, L. G. C. Pacheco, N. Seyffert, and V. Azevedo Corynebacterium 133 Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis 133 Other Corynebacteria 137 Arcanobacterium 138 Arcanobacterium pyogenes 138 Future Directions 141 9 Rhodococcus 149 J. F. Prescott, W. G. Meijer, and J. A. Vazquez-Boland Introduction 149 Characteristics and Sources of the Organism 149 Bacterial Virulence Factors 150 Pathogenesis 154 Gaps in Knowledge and Anticipated Developments 161 10 Listeria 167 C. J. Czuprynski, S. Kathariou, and K. Poulsen Introduction 167 Characteristics 168 Sources of Infection 169 Virulence Factors 170 Pathogenesis 172 Host-Pathogen Interactions in Listeriosis 177 Prevention and Treatment 179 Conclusion 179 11 Neurotoxigenic Clostridia 189 H. Boehnel and F. Gessler Introduction 189 Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum 189 Toxins 191 Tetanus 191 Botulism 193 Control and Prevention 197 BoNT as Therapeutics 197 Conclusions 197 12 Histotoxic Clostridia 203 J. Glenn Songer Introduction 203 Virulence Factors and Pathogenesis 203 Clostridium perfringens 203 Clostridium septicum 204 Clostridium chauvoei 205 Clostridium novyi 205 Clostridium sordellii 206 Conclusion 206 13 Enteric Clostridia 211 J. Glenn Songer Introduction 211 Clostridium perfringens 211 Clostridium difficile 218 Clostridium septicum 221 Clostridium spiroforme 221 Clostridium piliforme 222 Gaps in Knowledge and Anticipated Developments 222 14 Salmonella 231 P. A. Barrow, M. A. Jones, and N. Thomson Introduction 231 Salmonella Infections of Cattle 232 Salmonella Infections of Sheep 233 Salmonella Infections of Pigs 234 Infections of Domestic Fowl and Other Avian Species 235 Colonization of the Intestine 237 Salmonella Invasion and Enteropathogenesis 240 Systemic Disease 245 Genome Structure with Reference to Virulence 250 Immunity to Infection and Its Manipulation by Salmonella 255 Conclusion-Problems and Opportunities 257 Color Plate Section 15 Escherichia coli 267 C. L. Gyles and J. M. Fairbrother Introduction 267 Types of Escherichia coli Implicated in Disease 268 ETEC 268 Pathogenesis of ETEC 276 STEC 279 EPEC 285 ExPEC 289 Immunity 297 Conclusions 298 16 Yersinia 309 M. A. Bergman, R. Chafel, and J. Mecsas Introduction 309 Classification of Yersinia Species 309 Sources of Yersinia Species 311 Virulence Factors 312 Pathogenesis 316 Vaccines 320 Future Directions 320 17 Pasteurella 325 J. D. Boyce, M. Harper, I. W. Wilkie, and B. Adler Introduction 325 Characteristics and Sources of the Organisms 325 Diseases Caused by Pasteurella multocida 327 Pasteurella multocida: Bacterial Virulence Factors 328 Pathogenesis 333 Immunity in Pasteurella multocida Infections 337 Gaps in Knowledge and Anticipated Developments 340 Acknowledgment 340 18 Mannheimia 347 R. Y. C. Lo Introduction 347 Characteristics and Sources of Mannheimia 347 Bacterial Virulence Factors 348 Pathogenesis and Disease 354 Gaps in Knowledge and Anticipated Developments 356 Acknowledgments 356 19 Actinobacillus 363 J. I. MacInnes Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae 364 Actinobacillus lignieresii 375 Actinobacillus equuli 376 Actinobacillus suis 377 Future Prospects 379 20 Haemophilus 387 I. Sandal, L. B. Corbeil, and T. J. Inzana Introduction 387 Characteristics 387 Habitat and Transmission 388 Histophilus somni 388 Haemophilus parasuis 397 Avibacterium paragallinarum 400 Conclusions 402 21 Bordetella 411 K. Register and E. Harvill Introduction 411 Characteristics of the Genus 411 Sources of the Bacteria 412 Virulence Factors 412 Pathogenesis 419 Conclusion 423 22 Brucella 429 S. C. Olsen, B. H. Bellaire, R. M. Roop II, and C. O. Thoen Introduction 429 Characteristics and Sources of the Organisms 429 Bacterial Virulence Factors 431 Pathogenesis 432 Disease Control and Epidemiology 437 Gaps in Knowledge and Anticipated Developments 438 23 Pseudomonas 443 E. L. Westman, J. M. Matewish, and J. S. Lam Introduction 443 Overview of Pathogenesis 446 Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 448 Antibiotic Resistance 456 Impact of Whole Genome Sequences 458 Vaccines 459 Conclusions and Future Prospects 460 24 Moraxella 469 J. A. Angelos Introduction 469 Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis 469 Pathogenesis of Moraxella bovis 470 Conclusions 476 25 Campylobacter and Helicobacter483 L. A. Joens, F. Haesebrouck, and F. Pasmans Campylobacter (by L. A. Joens) 483 Helicobacter (by F. Haesebrouck and F. Pasmans) 485 Gastric Helicobacters 486 Enterohepatic Helicobacters 488 Pathogenesis and Virulence Factors 489 Conclusions 493 26 Lawsonia intracellularis 503 C. J. Gebhart and R. M. C. Guedes Characteristics of Lawsonia intracellularis 504 Sources of Lawsonia intracellularis 505 Virulence Factors 505 Pathogenesis 506 Conclusion 509 27 Gram-negative Anaerobes 513 D. J. Hampson, T. G. Nagaraja, R. M. Kennan, and J. I. Rood Introduction 513 General Bacterial Virulence Factors 513 Fusobacterium 514 Bacteroides 517 Prevotella and Porphyromonas 517 Dichelobacter 518 Treponema 520 Brachyspira 521 Gaps in Knowledge and Anticipated Developments 523 28 Leptospira 527 B. Adler and A. de la Pena Moctezuma Leptospira-The Basics 527 Leptospirosis-The Disease 528 Genomics, Proteomics, and Molecular Biology 531 Pathogenesis of Leptospirosis 534 Mechanisms of Immunity in Leptospirosis 536 Diagnosis of Leptospirosis and the Typing of Isolates 540 Gaps in Knowledge and Anticipated Developments 541 Acknowledgments 541 29 Mycoplasma 549 G. F. Browning, M. S. Marenda, P. F. Markham, A. H. Noormohammadi, and K. G. Whithear Introduction 549 Characteristics of the Organism 549 Sources of the Bacterium 550 Bacterial Virulence Factors 550 Pathogenesis 552 Interactions 558 Protective Immunity 563 Conclusions 565 30 Chlamydia 575 A. Pospischil, N. Borel, and A. A. Andersen Introduction 575 Classification 575 Host-Parasite Relationship: Clinical Disease and Pathogenesis 576 Life Cycle 579 Aberrant Development Cycle 579 Host Response 580 Prevention and Control 581 Future Directions 582 31 Rickettsiales 589 T. Waner, S. Mahan, P. Kelly, and S. Harrus Introduction 589 Family Anaplasmataceae 590 Family Rickettsiaceae 607 Index 623

THE EDITORS: Carlton L. Gyles, DVM, MSc, PhD, FCAHS, is Professor of Veterinary Microbiology at Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. John F. Prescott, MA, Vet MB, PhD, FCAHS, is Professor of Veterinary Microbiology at Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. J. Glenn Songer, PhD, is Professor of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. Charles O. Thoen, DVM, PhD, is Professor and Former Chair, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

Reviews for Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals

Veterinary medical education has led the medical professions in the intricate teaching of microbial pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The fourth edition of Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals continues this legacy with introductory chapters regarding themes in bacterial pathogenic mechanisms, subversion of the immune response by bacterial pathogens, and the evolution of bacterial virulence. This book is an excellent text for graduate students in veterinary microbiology, pathology, pathobiology, and preventive medicine and veterinarians studying for related AVMA-recognized board certifications. The comprehensive and extremely current references with each chapter will be useful to those investigating the pathology and infectious diseases of animals. ( Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association , December 2010) <p>

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