In contrast to most anatomic radiographic imaging techniques, nuclear medicine permits real time, non-invasive imaging of human physiology and pathophysiology and also allows for exquisite targeting of disease with therapeutic radiology. To open this window to the processes of human disease, one must first understand the physical processes behind radioactive decay and emission, as well the principles of radiation detection. Nuclear Medicine provides residents and practitioners in nuclear medicine and radiology a readable explanation of the physics concepts underpinning nuclear imaging and how they impact the utilization and interpretation of those images. Following a brief introductory section, the book provides numerous case examples, illustrating various imaging artifacts and pitfalls that can be recognized and remedied with a solid understanding of the physics behind the procedure. Understanding and applying the physics behind nuclear medicine is essential to maximizing not only diagnostic and therapeutic accuracy for providing optimal patient care, and Practical Physics is a required portion of radiology residency education and a designated area of the board exams.
Chapter 1. Introduction to Nuclear Medicine Chapter 2. Radiation X-rays Nuclear nomenclature Nuclear radiation Electron capture Beta emission Positron emission Alpha emission Isomeric transition Gamma radiation Internal conversion Auger electrons Units of radioactivity Chapter 3. Radiobiology Units of radiation exposure Deterministic effects Stochastic effects Radiation safety Chapter 4. Radiation detectors - ionization detectors Ionization chambers Dose calibrators Survey meters Proportional counters Chapter 5. Radiation detectors - single photon Collimators Scintillators Photomultiplier tubes The gamma camera Static planar imaging Dynamic imaging Gated imaging SPECT SPECT/CT Gamma probes and well counters Chapter 6. Radiation detection - PET PET principles PET acquisition and reconstruction Time of flight PET/CT PET/MR Chapter 7. Dose calibrator artifacts Case 1. Altitude Case 2. Geometry Case 3. Materials Chapter 8. Gamma camera artifacts Case 1. Cracked crystal Case 2. Hygroscopic crystal Case 3. PMT malfunction Case 4. Flood nonuniformity Chapter 9. Planar acquisition artifacts Case 1. Off peak acquisition Case 2. Motion artifact Case 3. Dose infiltration Case 4. Collimator penetration Chapter 10. SPECT acquisition artifacts Case 1. Center of rotation error Case 2. Filtered back projection streak Case 3. Noisy images Case 4. Iterative reconstruction errors Case 5. Motion artifact Chapter 11. PET acquisition artifacts Case 1. PMT malfunction Case 2. Crystal temperature instability Case 3. Table misregistration Case 4. Scatter correction errors Case 5. Attenuation correction errors Case 6. CT artifacts affecting PET reconstruction Chapter 12. Dose calibrator pitfalls Case 1. Dose calibrator contamination Case 2. Wrong setting used on dose calibrator Case 3. High background activity Chapter 13. Single photon pitfalls Case 1. Prostheses Case 2. Recent prior study Case 3. Contamination Case 4. Poor dynamic timing Case 5. Background activity Chapter 14. PET pitfalls Case 1. Infiltration Case 2. Treatment effect mimics new disease Case 3. Misregistration and attenuation correction Case 4. Respiratory motion artifact Chapter 15. Therapy pitfalls Case 1. Empiric dosing exceeds safe limits Case 2. GI toxicity Case 3. Radioactive vomit Case 4. Therapy infusion via indwelling catheter Chapter 16. Puzzlers
Daniel A. Pryma is Associate Professor of Radiology, Clinical Director of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Reviews for Nuclear Medicine: Practical Physics, Artifacts, and Pitfalls
I am delighted to recommend it to people starting out in nuclear medicine and certainly I think it will be helpful to have it on the shelf in the department. Dr Colin Todd, Consultant Radiologist, Kingston Hospital, London, RAD Magazine