Molecular Plant Immunity provides an integrated look at both well-established and emerging concepts in plant disease resistance providing the most current information on this important vitally important topic within plant biology. Understanding the molecular basis of the plant immune system has implications on the development of new varieties of sustainable crops, understanding the challenges plant life will face in changing environments, as well as providing a window into immune function that could have translational appeal to human medicine.
Molecular Plant Immunity opens with chapters reviewing how the first line of plant immune response is activated followed by chapters looking at the molecular mechanisms that allow fungi, bacteria, and oomycetes to circumvent those defenses. Plant resistance proteins, which provide the second line of plant immune defense, are then covered followed by chapters on the role of hormones in immunity and the mechanisms that modulate specific interaction between plants and viruses. The final chapters look at model plant-pathogen systems to review interaction between plants and fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens.
Written by a leading team of international experts, Molecular Plant Immunity will provide a needed resource to diverse research community investigated plant immunity.
John Wiley & Sons Inc
Country of Publication:
21 December 2012
Professional and scholarly
Contributors xi Preface xv Chapter 1 The Rice Xa21 Immune Receptor Recognizes a Novel Bacterial Quorum Sensing Factor 1 Chang Jin Park and Pamela C. Ronald Introduction 1 Plants and Animal Immune Systems 2 A Plethora of Immune Receptors Recognize Conserved Microbial Signatures 2 Ax21 Conserved Molecular Signature 3 Non-RD Receptor Kinase Xa21 8 XA21-Mediated Signaling Components 11 Cleavage and Nuclear Localization of the Rice XA21 Immune Receptor 13 Regulation in the Endoplasmic Reticulum: Quality Control of XA21 14 Systems Biology of the Innate Immune Response 15 Acknowledgments 16 References 16 Chapter 2 Molecular Basis of Effector Recognition by Plant NB-LRR Proteins 23 Lisong Ma, Harrold A. van den Burg, Ben J. C. Cornelissen, and Frank L. W. Takken Introduction 23 Building Blocks of NB-LRRs; Classification and Structural Features of Subdomains 24 Putting the Parts Together: Combining the Domains to Build a Signaling Competent NB-LRR Protein 29 Stabilization and Accumulation of NB-LRR Proteins: Their Maturation and Stabilization 30 When the Pathogen Attacks: Perception and Signaling by NB-LRR Proteins 33 Conclusion 35 Acknowledgments 35 References 36 Chapter 3 Signal Transduction Pathways Activated by R Proteins 41 Gitta Coaker and Douglas Baker Introduction 41 R Protein Stability 42 Genetic Separation of CC and TIR-NB-LRR Signaling 42 NB-LRRs Exhibit Modular Structure and Function 44 Subcellular Localization of NB-LRRs 45 NB-LRRs Can Function in Pairs 47 Common Immune Signaling Events Downstream of R Protein Activation 48 Conclusion 50 Acknowledgments 50 References 50 Chapter 4 The Roles of Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid in Plant Immunity 55 Pradeep Kachroo and Aardra Kachroo Introduction 55 Biosynthesis of SA 55 Derivatives of SA 57 SA and Systemic Acquired Resistance 58 SA Signaling Pathway 60 Jasmonates Mediate Plant Immunity 62 JA Biosynthetic Mutants Are Altered in Microbial Defense 63 Receptor Protein Complex Perceives JA 65 Transcription Factors Regulate JA-Derived Signaling 66 JA Regulates Defense Gene Expression 68 Conclusion 68 Acknowledgments 68 References 69 Chapter 5 Effectors of Bacterial Pathogens: Modes of Action and Plant Targets 81 Feng Feng and Jian-Min Zhou Introduction 81 Overview of Plant Innate Immunity 81 Overview of Type III Effectors 83 Host Targets and Biochemical Functions 86 Conclusion 99 Acknowledgments 99 References 99 Chapter 6 The Roles of Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) Effectors in Virulence and Avirulence of Xanthomonas 107 Aaron W. Hummel and Adam J. Bogdanove Introduction 107 TAL Effectors Are Delivered into and May Dimerize in the Host Cell 107 TAL Effectors Function in the Plant Cell Nucleus 108 AvrBs4 Is Recognized in the Plant Cell Cytoplasm 109 TAL Effectors Activate Host Gene Expression 109 Central Repeat Region of TAL Effectors Determines DNA Binding Specificity 110 TAL Effectors Wrap Around DNA in a Right-Handed Superhelix 111 TAL Effector Targets Include Different Susceptibility and Candidate Susceptibility Genes 112 MtN3 Gene Family Is Targeted by Multiple TAL Effectors 114 Promoter Polymorphisms Prevent S Gene Activation to Provide Disease Resistance 115 Nature of the Rice Bacterial Blight Resistance Gene xa5 Suggests TAL Effector Interaction With Plant Transcriptional Machinery 115 Executor R Genes Exploit TAL Effector Activity for Resistance 116 Diversity of TAL Effectors in Xanthomonas Populations Is Largely Unexplored 117 TAL Effectors Are Useful Tools for DNA Targeting 118 Conclusion 118 References 119 Chapter 7 Effectors of Fungi and Oomycetes: Their Virulence and Avirulence Functions and Translocation From Pathogen to Host Cells 123 Brett M. Tyler and Thierry Rouxel Introduction 123 Plant-Associated Fungi and Oomycetes 125 Identification of Fungal and Oomycete Effectors 126 Defensive Effectors: Effectors That Interfere With Plant Immunity 137 Offensive Effectors: Effectors That Debilitate Plant Tissue 146 Effectors That Contribute to Fitness via Unknown Mechanisms 149 Entry of Intracellular Effectors 149 Genome Location and Consequences for Adaptation/Dispensability 152 Conclusion 153 Acknowledgments 154 References 154 Chapter 8 Plant-Virus Interaction: Defense and Counter-Defense 169 Amy Wahba Foreman, Gail J. Pruss, and Vicki Vance Introduction 169 RNA Silencing as an Antiviral Defense Pathway - the Beginning of the Story 169 Small Regulatory RNA Biogenesis and Function 172 The Silencing Mafia - the Protein Families 174 Defense: Antiviral RNA Silencing Pathways 177 Counter-Defense: Viral Suppressors of Silencing and Their Targets 178 Viral Suppressors of Silencing and Endogenous Small Regulatory RNA Pathways 181 References 182 Chapter 9 Molecular Mechanisms Involved in the Interaction Between Tomato and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato 187 Andre C. Velasquez and Gregory B. Martin Introduction 187 PAMP-Triggered Immunity in Solanaceae 188 Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Virulence Mechanisms 192 Effector-Triggered Immunity in Solanaceae 197 Races of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato 200 ETI Is Involved in Nonhost Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars 200 ETI Signaling Pathways in Solanaceae 201 Conclusion 203 Acknowledgments 204 References 204 Chapter 10 Cladosporium fulvum-Tomato Pathosystem: Fungal Infection Strategy and Plant Responses 211 Bilal O kmen and Pierre J. G. M. de Wit Introduction 211 History of the Interaction Between C. fulvum and Tomato 212 Compatible and Incompatible Interactions 212 Cf-Mediated Downstream Signaling 219 Effectors in Other Fungi with Similar Infection Strategies 220 Conclusion 221 References 221 Chapter 11 Cucumber Mosaic Virus-Arabidopsis Interaction: Interplay of Virulence Strategies and Plant Responses 225 Jack H. Westwood and John P. Carr Introduction 225 Biology of CMV 226 Host Resistance Responses to Virus Infection 230 Targeting of Host Factors by the Virus 236 Phenomenon of Cross-Protection 237 Functions of SA in Antiviral Defense 237 Metabolic Responses to CMV Infection 239 Vector-Mediated Transmission 240 Conclusion 242 Acknowledgments 242 References 243 Chapter 12 Future Prospects for Genetically Engineering Disease-Resistant Plants 251 Yan-Jun Chen, Michael F. Lyngkjaer, and David B. Collinge Introduction 251 Targets for Second-Generation Transgenic Strategies for Resistance 252 Hormones 253 Defense Modulation 256 Transcription Factors 260 Promoters for Transgenic Disease Resistance 265 Implementation of Transgenic Resistance in the Field 266 Why Choose a Transgenic Approach? 267 Conclusion 269 Acknowledgments 269 References 269 Index 277
Guido Sessa is Associate Professor of Molecular Plant Pathology in the Department of Molecular Biology and Ecology of Plants at Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.