The history of mining is replete with controversy of which much is related to environmental damage and consequent community outrage. Over recent decades, this has led to increased pressure to improve the environmental and social performance of mining operations, particularly in developing countries. The industry has responded by embracing the ideals of sustainability and corporate social responsibility.
Mining and the Environment identifies and discusses the wide range of social and environmental issues pertaining to mining, with particular reference to mining in developing countries, from where many of the project examples and case studies have been selected. Following an introductory overview of pressing issues, the book illustrates how environmental and social impact assessment, such as defined in The Equator Principles , integrates with the mining lifecycle and how environmental and social management aims to eliminate the negative and accentuate the positive mining impacts. Practical approaches are provided for managing issues ranging from land acquisition and resettlement of Indigenous peoples, to the technical aspects of acid rock drainage and mine waste management. Moreover, thorough analyses of ways and means of sharing non-transitory mining benefits with host communities are presented to allow mining to provide sustainable benefits for the affected communities. This second edition of Mining and the Environment includes new chapters on Health Impact Assessment, Biodiversity and Gender Issues, all of which have become more important since the first edition appeared a decade ago.
The wide coverage of issues and the many real-life case studies make this practice-oriented book a reference and key reading. It is intended for environmental consultants, engineers, regulators and operators in the field and for students to use as a course textbook. As much of the matter applies to the extractive industries as a whole, it will also serve environmental professionals in the oil and gas industries.
Karlheinz Spitz and John Trudinger both have multiple years of experience in the assessment of mining projects around the world. The combination of their expertise and knowledge about social, economic, and environmental performance of mining and mine waste management has resulted in this in-depth coverage of the requirements for responsible and sustainable mining.
1 Minerals, Wealth, and Progress 1.1 History of Mining 1.2 The Path of Minerals from Cradle to Grave 1.3 Ore-A Natural Resource Curse or Blessing? 1.4 What Makes the Mining Industry Different? 1.5 The Unique Risk Profile of Mining 1.6 Meeting Environmental Issues Head On 1.7 Environmental Assessment Practice-Eliminate the Negative, Accentuate the Positive 1.8 The Equator Principles-Improved Practices for Better Outcomes 1.9 Mining and Sustainability References 2 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Protection Before Exploitation 2.1 Responsibilities of Mining Companies During Environmental Assessment 2.2 Environmental Assessment In The Mining Cycle 2.3 Managing Environmental Assessment 2.4 Common Themes And Core Principles 2.5 When is an ESIA Required? 2.6 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Step-by-Step 2.7 Documenting the Findings 2.8 Obtaining ESIA Approval 2.9 The Costs of Delay 2.10 What Environmental Assessment is Not Appendix 2.1 Data Needs References 3 Health Impact Assessment 3.1 Health and its Determinants 3.2 What is a Health Impact Assessment? 3.3 Screening 3.4 Scoping 3.5 Community and Stakeholder Engagement 3.6 Community Health Baseline Survey 3.7 Assessment 3.8 Management 3.9 Monitoring References 4 Involving the Public Forging Partnerships and Trust 4.1 Historical Perspective 4.2 Planning Stakeholder Involvement 4.3 Getting to Know Your Stakeholders 4.4 How to Identify Stakeholders? 4.5 Engaging Stakeholders 4.6 Conflict Identification and Management 4.7 Understanding the Benefits and Risks of Public Involvement 4.8 Common Mistakes References 5 The Anatomy of a Mine 5.1 It All Begins in the Earth 5.2 Exploration-From Reviewing Data to Taking Bulk Samples 5.3 Feasibility-Is It Worth Mining? 5.4 Engineering, Procurement, and Construction 5.5 Mining 5.6 Ore Dressing and Thickening 5.7 Ancillary Facilities 5.8 Design for Closure References 6 Mining Methods Vary Widely From Excavation to In-situ Leaching 6.1 The Three Main Categories of Commerical Minerals 6.2 Mining Methods 6.3 Artisanal Mining-Mining Outside Established Law 6 Converting Minerals to Metals From Ore to Finished Product 7.1 Pyrometallurgical Mineral Processing-The Use of Fire 7.2 Hydrometallurgical Mineral Processing-Dissolving Metals Away from Gangue 7.3 Common Techniques To Estimate Emissions Appendix 7.1 Products of Mining, Their Sources and Processing Requirements Appendix 7.2 Mineral Processes and Their Impacts References 8 Our Environment A Set of Natural and Man-made Features 8.1 The Atmosphere-Air, Weather, and Climate 8.2 The Lithosphere-Geology, Landform, and Earth Resources 8.3 The Hydrosphere-Storage and Movement of Water 8.4 The Biosphere-Life on Earth 8.5 The Social Sphere-Social and Cultural Fabric of Society 8.6 The Economic Sphere-Production, Distribution, and Consumption of Goods and Services 8.7 Judging the State and Value of the Environment 8.8 What are Nature's Economic Values? 8.9 International Law Pertaining to Natural and Environmental Resources References 9 The Baseline Understanding the Host Environment 9.1 The Use of Indicators 9.2 Environmental Scoping 9.3 Conducting Baseline Surveys-Ways and Means 9.4 Converting Data to Information 9.5 The Use of Remote Sensing Techniques and Geographic Information Systems References 10 Identifying and Evaluating Impacts Linking Cause and Effect 10.1 Defining the Challenges 10.2 Deciding on A Direction 10.3 Deciding on the Methodology 10.4 Linking Cause and Effect 10.5 Identifying Project Impacts 10.6 Evaluating Project Impacts 10.7 Cultural Heritage Sites and Mine Development 10.8 The Special Nature of Community Impacts 10.9 Environmental Justice 10.10 Group Decision-Making in Environmental Assessment 10.11 Reflecting on the Objective Nature of Environmental Assessment 10.12 Dealing with Uncertainties and Risks References 11 Cumulative and Transboundary Impact Assessment 11.1 Definitions 11.2 Coal Mining in Central Kalimantan 11.3 Area of Influence 11.4 Valued Ecosystem Components in Area of Influence 11.5 Baseline Status of Valued Ecosystem Components in Area of Influence 11.6 Other Activities in Area of Influence and Environmental Drivers 11.7 Cumulative Impacts on VECs and their Significance 11.8 Management Actions 11.9 Main Challenges in Cumulative Impact Assessments 11.10 Regional Planning Based on Cumulative Impact Assessment References 12 Emphasizing Environmental and Social Management and Monitoring Managing What Matters 12.1 Success Factors for Environmental and Social Management 12.2 The Key Components of an ESMS 12.3 Benefits and Limitations References 13 Metals, Their Biological Functions and Harmful ImpactsMetals are Naturally Occurring Elements 13.1 Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Metals 13.2 Some Notes on Selected Metals 13.3 Metals, Minerals and Rock References 14 Coal Its Use as Fuel, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions 14.1 Coal Formation 14.2 Coal Mining and the Release of Methane 14.3 Emissions from Coal Combustion References 15 Was the Environmental Assessment Adequate? Identifying Issues, Finding Solutions 15.1 Reviewing the Environmental and Social Impact Statement 15.2 Environmental Mine Audits 15.3 Sometimes Things Go Wrong References 16 The Range of Environmental and Social Concerns Separating Fact From Fantasy 16.1 Changes in Landform 16.2 Mine Wastes 16.3 Mine Effluents, Acid Rock Drainage and Water Balance 16.4 Air Quality and Climate Change 16.5 Biodiversity and Habitats 16.6 Social and Economic Change 16.7 Surface Mining Versus Underground Mining 16.8 Accidental Environmental Impacts 16.9 Uranium Mining Appendix 16.1 An Overview of Environmental and Social Risks and Potential Financial Implications References 17 Land Acquisition and Resettlement When Property and Development Rights Collide 17.1 Some Useful Definitions 17.2 What Determines The Severity of Resettlement Losses? 17.3 Resettlement Priorities 17.4 Compensation for Resettlement Losses and Restoration of Livelihood- A Right, Not a Need 17.5 Land Acquisition and Related Issues 17.6 Livelihood Restoration-Realizing Sustainable Value in the Compensation of Lost Assests 17.7 The Social Risks of Resettlement 17.8 Managing Land Acquisition and Resettlement 17.9 Artisanal Mining and Involuntary Resettlement References 18 Community Development Ensuring Long Term Benefits 18.1 What Defines A Community? 18.2 Pointers to Success 18.3 Community Development Process 18.4 Preparing for Mine Closure 18.5 Community Programs-What to Do? 18.6 Local Benefits Do Not Always Eventuate 18.7 Common Problems and Solutions Appendix 18 Evaluating Community Development Programs References 19 Indigenous Peoples Issues Respecting the Differences 19.1 Who Are Indigenous Peoples? 19.2 Reasons For Concern 19.3 Important Characteristics of Indigenous Societies 19.4 Issues and Opportunities 19.5 Strategies for Interaction with Indigenous Communities 19.6 Rights of Indigenous Peoples 19.7 Responsibilities of Mining Companies in Relation to Indigenous Peoples 19.8 Preserving or Restoring Autonomy: Partnering for the Long Term 19.9 Project Preparation 19.10 In Operation and Closing Down 19.11 Conclusions References 20 Gender in the Mining Industry 20.1 Definitions, Gender Mainstreaming, and Gender Equality 20.2 History of Women in Mining 20.3 Present-Day Mining and Gender 20.4 Other Approaches to Gender Assessment 20.5 What Works to Address Gender Inequity? 20.6 Outlook into a Gender Equal Future References 21 Biodiversity and Conservation 21.1 What is Critical Habitat? 21.2 Identification and Assessment of Critical Habitat 21.3 Biodiversity Action Plan 21.4 Biodiversity Management Plans and Procedures References 22 Acid Rock Drainage The Unseen Legacy 22.1 Nature and Significance of Acid Rock Drainage 22.2 Evaluating and Managing ARD References 23 Tailings Disposal Concepts and Practices 23.1 Deciding on the Tailings Disposal Scheme 23.2 Alternative Approaches to Tailings Disposal 23.3 Surface Tailings Storage 23.4 Submarine Tailings Placement References 24 Approaches to Waste Rock Disposal Issues and Risks 24.1 Nature and Characteristics of Waste Rock 24.2 Potential Impacts of Waste Rock Disposal 24.3 Objectives of Waste Rock Disposal 24.4 Site Selection for Waste Rock Storages 24.5 Alternative Design and Construction Approaches 24.6 Landform Design 24.7 Short-Term and Long-Term Erosion Control 24.8 Monitoring References Contents 25 Erosion The Perpetual Disruptive Forces of Water and Wind 25.1 Surface Water Erosion 25.2 Wind Erosion References 26 Mine Closure It is not Over When it is Over 26.1 Reasons for Mine Closure 26.2 Objectives of Mine Closure 26.3 Financing Mine Closure-The 'Polluter Pays' Principle 26.4 Rehabilitation 26.5 Pit Lakes 26.6 Social Aspects of Mine Closure References 27 Looking Ahead 27.1 Existing Trends in the Mining Sector 27.2 Trends in Environmental Practice 27.3 On and Beyond the Horizon-Global Change and Challenges 27.4 Concluding Remarks References
Dr. Karlheinz Spitz is an environmental consultant with more than 20 years professional experience in Canada, Europe, Asia, and Australia. His main interest is the environmental assessment of large resource development projects in developing countries. He worked on many mines in South East Asia, covering a wide range of minerals and a diverse spectrum of environmental and social settings. Dr. Spitz understands mining as a sustainable economic activity; his focus is on the social, economic and environmental performance of mining. Dr. Spitz provides high level advice to Equator Principles Financial Institutions, and he is regular guest lecturer at various universities. John Trudinger is an environmental consultant with more than 40 years of professional experience. Initially qualified as a geologist, his initial experience was on geotechnical investigations for large infrastructure projects. In the early 1970's he became involved in the emerging environmental business, and has since contributed as team member or team leader on environmental assessments for more than 100 resource development and infrastructure projects. He has worked throughout Australia, Asia and North America. His particular interest is the management of mine wastes in the mountainous wet tropics.