How do you define logic? Logic is about consistency - but not about all types of consistency. For example, if a man supports Aresenal one day and Spurs the next, then he is fickle but not necessarily illogical. If a legal system helps the rich but not the poor then it is unjust but not illogical. The type of consistency which concerns logicians is not loyalty or justice or sincerity it is compatibility of beliefs. Logic, therefore, involves studying the situations in which a particular sentence is true or false, and the rules that determine whether a given argument is valid or invalid.
Now fully revised and updated, Wilfrid Hodges' accessible study is the essential text for anyone who wants to learn about elementary logic. Assuming no previous knowledge of the subject, is takes the reader through the whole gamut of logical expressions, symbols and notations of a simple and lively way. This new edition also contains some additional exercises, with updated sections on formalization and semantics.
Penguin Books Ltd
Country of Publication:
2nd Revised edition
30 January 2002
Part 1 Consistency: consistent sets of beliefs. Part 2 Expressing beliefs in sentences: beliefs and words; declarative sentences; ambiguity. Part 3 When is a sentence true?: truth and references; borderline cases and bizarre situations; misleading statements; possible situations and meanings. Part 4 Testing for consistency and validity: consistent sets of short sentences; the tableau technique; arguments. Part 5 How are complex sentences built up?: phrase-classes; phrase-markers; scope; context-free grammars. Part 6 Logical analysis: sentence-functors and truth-functors; some basic truth-functors; special problems with -> and ; analyis of complex sentences. Part 7 Sentence tableaux: sentence tableaux; interpretations. Part 8 Propositional calculus: a formal language; truth-tables; properties of semantic entailment; formal tableaux. Part 9 Designators and identity: designators and predicates; purely referential occurrences; two policies on reference; identity. Part 10 Relations: satisfaction; binary relations; same , at least and more ; equivalence relations. Part 11 Quantifiers: quantification; all and some ; quantifier rules. Part 12 Predicate logic: logical scope; analyses using identity; predicate interpretations; predicate tableaux; formalization again. Part 13 Horizons of logic: likelihood; intension; semantics.
Wilfrid Hodges is a Professor of Mathematics at Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London. He has held visiting appointments in the US.
Reviews for Logic: An Introduction to Elementary Logic
'A lively and stimulating book' Philosophy