This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the realization of improved rainfed agriculture yield in semi-arid and dry land areas. The incentive of watershed programs is to increase the return on investment with over 20% for 65% of the projects that are currently underperforming. Besides techniques to improve the livelihood of the many small-scale farmers in developing countries, it includes examples and case studies for further support. The methods discussed have recently shown to be successful and economically remunerative in India and in various African countries.
Intended for professionals (investors, policy makers), researchers and (post) graduate students working on dry land and sustainable agriculture and water and natural resources management. Suited for courses in dry land agriculture, soil and water management and watershed development.
Suhas P. Wani (ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Patancheru Andhra Pradesh India)
, Johan Rockstrom (Stockholm Environment Institute
, Kanwar Lal Sahrawat (ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
, Andhra Pradesh
Country of Publication:
16 September 2011
Further / Higher Education
A / AS level
Preface Foreword List of contributors 1 Improving livelihoods in rainfed areas through integrated watershed management: A development perspective 1.1 Introduction and overview 1.2 The semi-arid tropics and the importance of rainfed farming 1.3 The objectives of watershed management 1.4 The main experience 1.5 Understanding the nature of rural poverty 1.5.1 Landlessness 1.5.2 Women 1.5.3 Subsistence 1.5.4 Debt and awareness 1.5.5 Health 1.5.6 Human rights 1.5.7 Environment 1.5.8 Trends 1.5.9 Assistance 1.5.10 Equity and inclusion 1.5.11 Migration 1.5.12 Case study 1.5.13 Indicators of progress 1.6 Four stages to pull a rural community out of poverty 1.6.1 The Process 188.8.131.52 Stage 1 184.108.40.206 Stage 2 220.127.116.11 Stage 3 18.104.22.168 Stage 4 1.6.2 Recent improvements 1.6.3 Community resource centers 1.6.4 Income-generating activities 1.6.5 Second generation interventions: market links 1.6.6 Duration of support and coordination 1.6.7 Better use of the NGOs as collaborators or implementers 1.7 Aspects of the process of watershed implementation 1.7.1 Management of watershed 1.7.2 Groups and Jankars 1.7.3 Savings, loans, and credit 1.7.4 Literacy and numeracy 1.7.5 Expenditure 1.7.6 Land ownership 1.7.7 Spread and dissemination 1.7.8 Lack of spread of locally successful watershed interventions in India 1.7.9 Sustainability 1.7.10 Subsidies and cost contributions 1.8 Technology for the poor 1.8.1 General principles 22.214.171.124 Participatory varietal selection (PVS) 126.96.36.199 Client oriented breeding 188.8.131.52 Seed priming 184.108.40.206 Technologies for women 220.127.116.11 Soil conservation 18.104.22.168 Soil fertility 22.214.171.124 Crop pest control 126.96.36.199 Renewable energy technologies 188.8.131.52 Community empowerment 1.8.2 Water 1.8.3 Trees 1.8.4 Livestock and fodder 1.8.5 Aquaculture 1.9 Future research needs 1.10 Concluding remarks and way forward References 2 Watershed development as a growth engine for sustainable development of rainfed areas 2.1 Introduction 2.2 A concept of safe operating space for humanity 2.3 Current status of rainfed agriculture 2.4 Vast potential to increase crop yields in rainfed areas 2.5 Improved water productivity is a key to unlock the potential of rainfed agriculture 2.6 Water alone cannot do it 2.7 Integrated watershed management is key for sustainable management of land and water resources and improved livelihoods References 3 Watershed development for rainfed areas: Concept, principles, and approaches 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Watershed concept 3.3 Importance of land use planning in watershed development 3.4 Criteria for prioritization of watersheds 3.5 Common features of the watershed development model 3.6 Evolution of watershed development approach in India 3.7 Need for a holistic approach for watershed management 3.8 Evolution of the consortium approach 3.9 Components of integrated watershed management 3.9.1 Entry Point Activity 3.9.2 Land and water conservation practices 3.9.3 Integrated pest and nutrient management 3.9.4 Farmers' participatory research and development trials 3.9.5 Crop diversification and intensification of crops and systems 3.9.6 Use of multiple resources 3.9.7 Capacity building 3.10 Key features of facilitating the consortium approach 3.10.1 Need for a common goal - team building 3.10.2 Building on the strengths 3.10.3 Institutionalization of partnerships 3.10.4 Internal and external institutional arrangements 3.10.5 Dynamic and evolving 3.10.6 Scaling-up/out the approach 3.11 Advantages of consortium approach 3.11.1 Sustainability 3.11.2 Cost-effectiveness 3.11.3 Win-win solution through empowerment of partners 3.11.4 Rapid scaling-up 3.11.5 Change in organizational behavior 3.11.6 Public-private partnerships are facilitated (multiplier effect) 3.12 Learnings from the experience and triggers for success 3.13 Operationalizing community watershed as a growth engine 3.14 Watershed as an entry point to improve livelihoods 3.15 Convergence in watershed 3.16 Multiple benefits from integrated watershed development 3.17 Conclusions References 4 Equity in watershed development: Imperatives for property rights, resource allocation, and institutions 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 The context 4.1.2 Exclusion of landless and women: Role of CPLRs 4.1.3 Groundwater and equity 4.1.4 Project-based equity 4.1.5 Linkages between technology, allocation of funds, and institutions: The issue of mode 4.1.6 Equity in policy and guidelines 4.1.7 Objectives and approach 4.2 Equity, property rights, and biophysical characteristics 4.2.1 Equity and property relations in land and water 184.108.40.206 Historically embedded inequalities in access to land and water 220.127.116.11 Land: Domains of ownership 18.104.22.168 Ownership, land use, and CPLR 22.214.171.124 Ownership and landlessness 4.2.2 Water: Availability and increasing water scarcity 126.96.36.199 Property relations in water 188.8.131.52 Water is a local and non-local resource 184.108.40.206 Spatial or location inequities 220.127.116.11 How do the biophysical characteristics actually play out? 4.2.3 Water is a common pool resource and has competing uses 18.104.22.168 The meeting of property relations and the biophysical characteristics 22.214.171.124 Watershed also creates conditions for a positive sum game 4.2.4 Efforts to address equity 126.96.36.199 Equity in coverage 188.8.131.52 Targeted approach 184.108.40.206 Common lands 220.127.116.11 Equitable sharing of increased water 18.104.22.168 Produce sharing arrangements 22.214.171.124 Attempts at risk proofing/pooling and sharing arrangements 4.2.5 Main observations 4.3 Funds allocation and subsidies 4.3.1 Nature of watershed treatments among sample villages 4.3.2 Perceived benefits: Sources and beneficiaries 4.3.3 Total number of beneficiaries: Some approximation 4.3.4 Distribution of subsidies and alternative mechanisms 4.3.5 Overall evidence 4.4 Equity and institutions 4.4.1 Criticality of institutional process for equity in watershed 4.4.2 Institutional challenges: Learning from the CPR literature 4.4.3 Institutions within WDPs: Provisions in various guidelines 4.4.4 Learning from the past experience: Taking stock 126.96.36.199 Participatory processes: A larger view 188.8.131.52 SHGs and user groups: A tool for equity 184.108.40.206 CPLRs and institutions 4.4.5 Examples of good practices 220.127.116.11 Streamlining equity consideration: Case of CWDP-Orissa 18.104.22.168 Public-private collaboration for forest development in watersheds: A case of IGWDP in Ahmednagar district 22.214.171.124 Sujala watershed and social regulations 4.4.6 Main observations 4.5 Gender mainstreaming 4.5.1 Enhancing women's participation and mainstreaming of women SHGs 4.5.2 Promotion of micro-enterprises 4.5.3 Institutional challenges 4.6 Policy implications and way forward 4.6.1 Multi-pronged approach 4.6.2 Policy recommendation 4.6.3 Way forward References 5 Policies and institutions for increasing benefits of integrated watershed management programs 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Integrated watershed management program in India 5.3 Policy endorsement at macro level 5.4 Watershed development guidelines 5.4.1 The new common guidelines 5.5 Institutional arrangements for watershed development 5.5.1 National Rainfed Area Authority 5.5.2 Central Level Nodal Agency 5.5.3 State Level Nodal Agency 5.5.4 District Watershed Development Unit 5.5.5 Project implementing agency 5.5.6 Watershed Committee 5.5.7 Self-help groups 5.5.8 User groups 5.6 Promoting closer institutional links 5.7 Dealing with policy and institutional constraints 5.7.1 Collective action 5.7.2 Bottom-up approach 5.7.3 Capacity building 5.7.4 Knowledge-based Entry Point Activity 5.7.5 Empowering women and vulnerable groups 5.8 Sustainable watershed management: Role of common guidelines 5.8.1 Institutional responsibilities 5.8.2 Delegation of power to the states 5.8.3 Dedicated institutions 5.8.4 Convergence 5.8.5 Consortium approach 5.8.6 Addressing equity 5.8.7 Project management 5.8.9 Post-project sustainability 5.9 Operationalizing policies 5.10 Conclusions References 6 Application of new science tools in integrated watershed management for enhancing impacts 6.1 Introduction 6.2 New science tools for watershed management 6.2.1 Geographical information system (GIS) 6.2.2 Remote sensing 6.3 Crop-growth simulation modeling 6.4 Field sensors and data communication devices 6.4.1 Global Positioning System 6.4.2 Automatic Weather Station 6.4.3 Mobile devices 6.5 Data storage and dissemination 6.6 Spatial technologies in rainfed agriculture and watershed management 6.6.1 Characterization of production systems in India 6.6.2 Land use mapping for assessing fallows and cropping intensity 6.6.3 Spatial distribution of rainy season fallows in Madhya Pradesh 6.6.4 Spatial distribution and quantification of rice-fallows in South Asia: Potential for legumes 6.6.5 GIS mapping of spatial variability of soil micronutrients at district level 6.6.6 Assessment of seasonal rainfall forecasting and climate risk management options for peninsular India 6.6.7 Baseline studies to delineate watershed 6.6.8 Regional-scale water budgeting for SAT India 6.6.9 Spatial water balance modeling of watersheds 6.7 Integrated watershed management for land and water conservation and sustainable agricultural production in Asia 6.7.1 Assessment of agroclimatic potential 6.7.2 Climatic water balance 6.7.3 Climatic water balance of watersheds in China, Thailand, Vietnam, and India 6.7.4 Rainfed length of growing period 6.7.5 Drought monitoring at watersheds 6.7.6 Weather forecasting for agriculture 6.7.7 Watershed monitoring 6.7.8 Satellite images for impact assessment 6.7.9 Monitoring and evaluation of NWDPRA watersheds using remote sensing 6.7.10 Monitoring and impact assessment of Adarsha watershed 6.8 Technology integration 6.8.1 Field data transmission 6.8.2 Sensor Web 6.8.3 Spatial simulation modeling 6.8.4 Use of ICT in watershed management 6.8.5 Intelligent watershed information system 6.9 Summary and conclusions References 7 Soil and water conservation for optimizing productivity and improving livelihoods in rainfed areas 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Soil and water conservation practices 7.2.1 In-situ soil and water conservation 126.96.36.199 Contour cultivation and conservation furrows 188.8.131.52 Tied ridges 184.108.40.206 Scoops (or pitting) 220.127.116.11 Broad-bed and furrow and related systems 7.2.2 Bunding 18.104.22.168 Contour bunding 22.214.171.124 Modified contour bunds 126.96.36.199 Graded bunding 188.8.131.52 Field bunding 184.108.40.206 Compartmental bunding 220.127.116.11 Vegetative barriers 7.2.3 Tillage 18.104.22.168 Zero tillage or minimum tillage or conservation tillage 7.2.4 Ex-situ soil and water conservation (runoff harvesting and supplemental irrigation) 22.214.171.124 Crop responses to supplemental irrigation 7.2.5 Indigenous soil and rainwater conservation practices 7.3 Enhancing the impacts of soil and water conservation and water harvesting interventions through integrated watershed approach 7.4 Strategies for improving adoption of soil and water conservation practices by farmers 7.5 Conclusions References 8 Rainwater harvesting improves returns on investment in smallholder agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa 8.1 Introduction 8.2 The need to respond to the threat of climate change 8.3 Policies and institutional frameworks 8.4 Why focus on rainwater harvesting? 8.5 Options for rainwater harvesting 8.5.1 RWH from surface runoff and storage in ponds, pans, and tanks (blue water) 8.5.2 Rooftop rainwater harvesting 8.5.3 Small earth dams and weirs 8.5.4 Sand and subsurface dams 8.5.5 Runoff harvesting and storage in soil profile 8.5.6 In-situ water harvesting and conservation 8.5.7 Spateflow diversion and utilization 8.5.8 Conservation agriculture and RWH 8.5.9 Soil fertility management in supporting RWH efforts 8.5.10 Water for livestock 8.5.11 Socioeconomic issues in RWH 8.6 Conclusions 8.7 Way forward 8.7.1 Support rainwater harvesting 126.96.36.199 Optimizing rainwater harvesting (Integrated watershed management) 188.8.131.52 Runoff harvesting, diversions, and storage in soil profile 184.108.40.206 Small individual water storages in ponds, pans, and tanks 220.127.116.11 Medium-scale storage 18.104.22.168 Rainwater harvesting for underground storages 8.7.2 Provide secure rights to access land and water 8.7.3 Adoption of innovative financing for smallholder farmers 8.7.4 Interactive capacity strengthening for RWH 8.7.5 Enhance policy support 8.7.6 Recommendations References 9 Management of emerging multinutrient deficiencies: A prerequisite for sustainable enhancement of rainfed agricultural productivity 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Soil degradation - organic matter and nutrient status of SAT soils 9.3 Balanced nutrient management: Crop productivity and quality 9.4 Soil quality and water use efficiency 9.5 Strategy for scaling-up the soil test-based approach for enhancing agricultural productivity 9.6 General discussion and conclusions References 10 Increasing crop productivity and water use efficiency in rainfed agriculture 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Water use efficiency: Concepts and definitions 10.3 Water balance of crops in different rainfed regions 10.4 Gaps in productivity and water use efficiency 10.5 Integrated approach to enhance productivity and water use efficiency 10.6 Rainfall management to secure water availability 10.6.1 In-situ soil and water conservation 10.6.1.1 Land surface management 10.6.1.2 Tillage 10.6.1.3 Conservation agriculture 10.6.2 Water harvesting and groundwater recharge 10.7 Increasing water use and water use efficiency 10.7.1 Efficient supplemental irrigation 10.7.1.1 Conveyance of water to the field 10.7.1.2 Methods of application of supplemental water on SAT Vertisols 10.7.1.3 Efficient application of supplemental water on SAT Alfisols 10.7.1.4 Scheduling of irrigation and deficit irrigation 10.7.1.5 Conjunctive use of rainfall and limited irrigation water 10.7.1.6 Supplemental irrigation and crop intensification or diversification 10.7.2 Increasing soil water uptake 10.7.2.1 Improved crop agronomy 10.7.2.2 Balanced plant nutrition 10.7.2.3 Improved crop varieties and nutrient management 10.7.2.4 Water conservation practices and nutrient management 10.7.2.5 Crop protection 10.2.7.6 Crop intensification (double cropping) 10.7.2.7 Crop diversification with chickpea in rice fallows 10.7.2.8 Contingent and dynamic cropping 10.7.3 Reducing soil evaporation 10.7.3.1 Mulches 10.7.3.2 Microclimate modifications 10.7.3.3 Land degradation, conservation agriculture, and water use efficiency 10.7.4 Crop breeding for increased water productivity 10.8 Promoting adoption of technologies 10.8.1 Enabling policies 10.8.2 Building institutions 10.8.3 Raising awareness and capacity building 10.9 Summary and conclusions References 11 Impact of watershed projects in India: Application of various approaches and methods 11.1 Introduction 11.1.1 An overview of watershed development programs in India 11.1.2 Synthesis of past experience of watershed development in India 11.1.3 Need for economic impact assessment of watershed 11.1.4 Challenges in impact assessment of watershed development 22.214.171.124 Methods of impact assessment 126.96.36.199 Approaches of impact assessment 188.8.131.52 Scale or time lags 184.108.40.206 Samples for the study 220.127.116.11 Selection of indicators 18.104.22.168 Choosing the discount rate 11.1.5 Indicators for evaluation of watershed development projects 11.2 Approaches 11.2.1 Before and after 11.2.2 With and without 11.2.3 Combination of with and without using double difference method 11.3 Methodologies: Application of watershed evaluation methods 11.3.1 Conventional benefit-cost analysis 11.3.2 Econometric methods (Economic surplus approach) 22.214.171.124 Application of economic surplus method to watershed evaluation 126.96.36.199 Cost of project 188.8.131.52 Results of the economic surplus method 11.3.3 Bioeconomic modeling approach 184.108.40.206 Advantages of bioeconomic modeling in impact assessment studies 220.127.116.11 Application of bioeconomic model for impact evaluation of watershed development program in semi-arid tropics of India 18.104.22.168 Biophysical and socioeconomic data 22.214.171.124 Bioeconomic modeling 126.96.36.199 Validation of the bioeconomic model 188.8.131.52 Impact of change in yield of dryland crops 184.108.40.206 Impact of change in irrigated area in the watershed 11.3.4 Meta analysis 220.127.116.11 Review of studies on meta analysis 18.104.22.168 Biophysical impacts 22.214.171.124 Socioeconomic impacts 126.96.36.199 Environmental impacts 188.8.131.52 Overall economic impacts 11.3.5 Comparison of the methods 11.4 Conclusions and policy recommendations References 12 Watershed management through a resilience lens 12.1 Watershed management in smallholder rainfed agroecosystems 12.2 Embedding smallholder farming in landscape ecosystem services 12.2.1 Introduction to management successes and failures 12.2.2 Smallholder agroecosystems and ecosystem services 12.2.3 Watershed (landscape) management successes 12.2.4 Summary of selected cases 12.2.5 Academic reviews of unmanaged case studies 12.2.6 Additional case studies 12.2.7 Landscape limits and trade-offs between ecosystem services 12.2.8 Long-term sustainability and the hidden impacts of management successes and failures 12.3 Impacts on ecosystem services and the relationship to barriers to development of sustainable ecosystem services 12.3.1 Impacts on system stability as obstacles in smallholder rainfed agroecosystems 12.3.2 Understanding barriers as parts of ecosystem processes 12.3.3 Climate change as an over-arching pressure 12.3.4 Barriers for development reinterpreted as management opportunities 12.4 Understanding successes and long-term agroecosystem stability 12.3.3 Introduction to agroecosystem stability 12.4.2 Resilience defined 12.4.3 Drivers of system stability 12.4.4 Tipping points and regime shifts 12.4.5 Defining key system components and processes 12.4.6 Interpreting successes in terms of overall agroecosystem stability 12.5 Identifying management entry points using a resilience frame 12.5.1 Management entry points - learning from case studies 12.5.2 Recommendations for future research 12.5.3 Resources to assist practitioners References 13 Impacts of climate change on rainfed agriculture and adaptation strategies to improve livelihoods 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Climate change impacts 13.2.1 Crop and livestock production 13.2.2 Water resources 13.3 Regional impacts 13.3.1 Sub-Saharan Africa 13.3.2 South Asia 13.4 Prices, poverty, and malnutrition 13.5 Adaptation 13.5.1 Coping, adaptation, and resilience 13.5.2 Adaptation strategies 13.6 Conclusions References Index Colour plates