Practical, ready-to-use ELL strategies firmly rooted in the latest research This book provides practical strategies and tools for assessing and teaching even the most hard to reach English language learners across the content areas. Syrja offers educators the latest information on working with ELLs (including using formative assessments) and provides a wealth of classroom-tested models and measures. These tools have proven to be effective with ESL students at all levels, including Long Term English Learners (LTELs). Throughout the book, the author shares powerful research-based strategies and clearly illustrates how they should be implemented in the classroom for maximum impact.
Filled with proven ideas and easy-to-implement tips for teaching ELLs Designed to be a practical ELL/ESL resource for classroom teachers Syrja, a former teacher and ESL student, is a noted expert in English language learning and a Professional Development Associate with the Leadership and Learning Center This value-packed guide offers educators accessible and research-based classroom strategies for reaching and teaching ELLs.
Rachel Carrillo Syrja
Jossey Bass Wiley
Country of Publication:
Series: J-B Ed: Reach and Teach
06 September 2011
Professional and scholarly
About the Author ix About The Leadership and Learning Center x Acknowledgments xi Preface xxi Introduction 1 Where Are the Answers? 2 Using This Resource 2 PART ONE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS Chapter 1: The Current State of Education for English Language Learners 5 What Works with ELLs 6 Is It Only About Degree of Implementation? 7 How Long It Takes to Acquire English 8 The New Wave of Immigration 9 A Growing ELL Population 9 Characteristics of the Current ELL Population 10 Chapter 2: The Case for Urgency 11 The Impact of the No Child Left Behind Act 11 State Concentrations of School-Age Children of Immigrants 13 Responding to the Challenges 14 Chapter 3: Long-Term English Language Learners 15 Chapter 4: How Children Acquire Language 19 Part One Resources 23 What Works with Long-Term English Learners 23 Discussion Questions 24 PART TWO GETTING READY TO TEACH Chapter 5: English Language Learner Instructional Programs 27 Some Issues with the Home Language Survey 28 English Language Learner Program Options 29 Bilingual Programs 30 Dual-Immersion Programs 30 English-Immersion Programs 31 EnglishMainstream 31 Support Programs for ELLs 31 English as a Second Language Instruction 31 Sheltered Instruction 32 Total Physical Response 32 Conclusion 32 Chapter 6: Levels of Language Acquisition 33 How the Four Language Domains Develop in ELLs 34 CommonMisconceptions 34 Conclusion 37 Chapter 7: Assessing English Language Learners 39 Formative and Summative Assessments 40 The Assessment Process 40 Monitoring Language Acquisition 40 Complexities of Monitoring Language Acquisition 40 Assessment in the ESL Classroom 43 Assessment in the Mainstream Classroom 43 Planning Differentiated Assessments 45 AWord of Caution to Mainstream Teachers 48 The Bottom Line 49 Chapter 8: Grading English Language Learners 51 Impact of an Inaccurate Grading System on Students and Parents 52 What About the Teacher?s Beliefs? 54 How to Solve the Grading Issues 54 Chapter 9: Identifying Language Acquisition Levels 57 Creating Language Proficiency Assessments 58 Using Assessment Results 59 Part Two Resources 61 Survey: Auditing Your English Language Learner Program 61 Sample Supplemental Grading Report 64 English Language Learner Profile Sheet 66 Using the English Language Learner Profile Sheet 68 Discussion Questions 69 PART THREE REACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS Chapter 10: Lowering the Affective Filter 73 Establishing a Low Affective Filter 74 Lowering the Affective Filter 75 Ensuring the Environment Is Conducive to Learning 75 Strategies for Lowering the Affective Filter 76 A Peek into Two Classrooms 76 Chapter 11: Connecting with Families of English Language Learners 81 Where to Begin 82 Making Parents and Families Feel Welcome 82 Educational Opportunities for Parents 84 Chapter 12: The Importance of Cultural Connections 87 Funds of Knowledge 88 Connecting with Families 89 Part Three Resources 91 Planning Resources for Family Nights 91 Sample Parent Letter 91 Parent Education Planning Checklist 92 Family Night Planning Checklist 92 Family Reading Night Parent Resources for Elementary Schools 93 Before-Reading Strategies 93 During-Reading Strategies 93 After-Reading Strategies 93 Family Night Parent Resources for Secondary School 93 Discussion Questions 94 PART FOUR TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS Chapter 13: What We Do Matters: The Importance of High-Quality Instruction 97 Action Research to Identify High-Impact Strategies 98 Conducting Action Research 99 Chapter 14: Using the Four Domains of Language in Teaching 101 The Domains in Detail 102 Listening 102 Speaking 102 Reading 102 Writing 103 Engaging Students Using the Four Domains of Language 103 The Fifth Domain: Thinking 106 Chapter 15: Making Content Comprehensible 107 Chapter 16: Total Physical Response 111 Chapter 17: Sheltered Instruction 115 Examples of Sheltered Instruction 116 Graphic Organizers and ConceptMaps 116 Schema Building 117 Word Study 117 Sheltered Instruction Strategies 117 Conclusion 118 Chapter 18: English as a Second Language 119 How English Learners Are Placed in ESL Classes 120 ESL Programs 122 ESL Curriculum Materials 122 Content-Based Instruction for ESL 123 Content-Driven ESL 124 Content-Based ESL 124 Part Four Resources 127 Assessing the Effectiveness of Our ESL Program 127 PART FIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES ACROSS THE CONTENT AREAS Chapter 19: High-Impact Strategies for Teaching the Content Areas 131 Chapter 20: Strategies for Reading 133 Approaches to Reading for Elementary and Secondary English Learners 134 Assessing Preexisting Reading Ability 135 Comprehension: The Key to Accessing Content 136 Background Knowledge 137 The Strategy: Making Connections to Background Knowledge 137 The Strategy: Making Connections?Text to Text, Text to Self, Text toWorld 139 The Strategy: List-Group-Label 140 Motivation and Attention 142 The Strategy: Teaching Questioning 142 The Strategy: Teaching Students How to Predict 144 The Strategy: Tea Party 146 Comprehension Strategies 148 The Strategy: Reciprocal Teaching 148 The Strategy: Creating Mental Images Through Visualization 155 The Strategy: Interactive Reading 155 Word Recognition 158 Fluency 158 Vocabulary Development 159 The Strategy: Repeated Reading 160 The Strategy: Key Vocabulary Prediction 161 The Strategy: Word Maps 163 Wide Reading: The Importance of Independent Reading 165 The Strategy: Implementing Independent Reading 166 Chapter 21: Strategies forWriting 173 AWord About Grammar and Usage 174 Writing in the Content Areas 174 The Strategy: Implementing Writing Across the Curriculum 174 The Strategy: Connecting Reading and Writing Through Content 176 The Strategy: Developing Voice 178 The Strategy: RAFT (Role, Audience, Format, Topic) Writing 179 Chapter 22: Strategies forMath 183 How to Help English Learners Achieve in Math 184 Difficulties That English Learners Face in Math 185 Strategies for Math 186 Preinstruction Strategies 186 The Strategy: Previewing the Lesson 186 The Strategy: Vocabulary Instruction for Multiple-Meaning Words 189 During-Instruction Strategies 194 The Strategy: Group Solutions 194 Other Strategies 195 Postinstruction Strategies 196 The Strategy: Paired Summarizing 197 Chapter 23: Strategies for Other Content Areas 199 Teaching Text Features 201 The Strategy: Prereading Text 204 The Strategy: K-Q-L 206 Differentiation for Levels 1 and 2 English Learners 208 The Strategy: REAP 208 Part Five Resources 211 Elementary Interest Survey: My Favorite Things 212 Secondary Student Interest Survey 213 Discussion Questions 214 PART SIX PUTTING THESE PRACTICES TO WORK Chapter 24: How Can IMake These PracticesWork for My English Learners? 217 The Strategy: Microteaching 218 The Strategy in Action 218 Part Six Resources 223 Microteaching Checklist 223 Discussion Questions 224 Notes 225 Definitions and Key Terminology 231 References 237 Index 243 For my beautiful Haley.
Rachel Carrillo Syrja, M.Ed., is a professional development associate with The Leadership and Learning Center. She has over eighteen years of experience in education ranging from classroom teacher and coach to professional development specialist. She has spent much of her career specializing in instruction for English language learners.