Handbook of Major Palm Pests: Biology and Management contains the most comprehensive and up-to-date information on the red palm weevil and the palm borer moth, two newly emergent invasive palm pests which are adversely affecting palm trees around the world. It provides state-of-the-art scientific information on the ecology, biology, and management of palm pests from a global group of experts in the field.
An essential compendium for anyone working with or studying palms, it is dedicated to the detection, eradication, and containment of these invasive species, which threaten the health and very existence of global palm crops.
, Stefano Colazza
Country of Publication:
03 March 2017
Professional and scholarly
Contributors xiii Nomenclature xvii Introduction xxi 1 Some Representative Palm Pests: Ecological and Practical Data 1 Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier, Nunzio Isidoro, Josep A. Jaques, Paola Riolo, Mohamed Kamal and Didier Rochat 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 General Features About Palms and their Pests 2 1.3 Crown and Stem Borers 5 1.4 Defoliators of Fronds (= Leaves) 11 1.5 Sap and Frond (= Leaves) Feeders? 17 1.6 Inflorescence and Fruit Borers 20 1.7 Roots 27 1.8 Conclusion 28 References 29 2 Morphology and Physiology of Palm Trees as Related to Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon Infestation and Management 39 Yuval Cohen 2.1 Introduction 39 2.2 Palms in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin 39 2.3 Palm Morphology and Anatomy 41 2.4 The Palm Crown 42 2.5 The Structure of the Palm Stem 46 2.6 Conclusion 51 References 51 3 Economic and Social Impacts of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon on Palms 54 Alan MacLeod and Mohamud Hussein 3.1 Introduction 54 3.2 Ecosystem Services Provided by Palms 55 3.3 Impacts and Costs of Mitigation 61 3.4 Conclusion 63 References 64 4 Rhynchophorus ferrugineus: Taxonomy, Distribution, Biology, and Life Cycle 69 Didier Rochat, Oscar Dembilio, Josep A. Jaques, Pompeo Suma, Alessandra La Pergola, Rachid Hamidi, Dimitris Kontodimas and Victoria Soroker 4.1 Introduction 69 4.2 Taxonomy and Distribution 70 4.3 Biology and Host Plants 73 4.4 Life Cycle and Adaptation to the Temperate and Desert Areas 85 4.5 Conclusion 96 References 97 5 Rhynchophorus ferrugineus: Behavior, Ecology, and Communication 105 Ezio Peri, Didier Rochat, Gregor Belusi!c, Marko Ili'c, Victoria Soroker, Shay Barkan, Salvatore Guarino, Paolo Lo Bue and Stefano Colazza 5.1 Introduction 105 5.2 Main Behaviors Involved in Species Dynamics 106 5.3 Chemical Cues 111 5.4 Vision and Visual Cues 119 5.5 Conclusion 124 References 125 6 Paysandisia archon: Taxonomy, Distribution, Biology, and Life Cycle 131 Nunzio Isidoro, Paola Riolo, Elisa Verdolini, Ezio Peri and Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier 6.1 Introduction 131 6.2 Taxonomy of the Castniidae 131 6.3 Distribution of P. archon 133 6.4 Morphology of P. archon Stages 135 6.5 Biology 137 6.6 Conclusion 145 References 145 7 Paysandisia archon: Behavior, Ecology, and Communication 150 Brigitte Frerot, Rachid Hamidi, Nunzio Isidoro, Paola Riolo, Sara Ruschioni, Ezio Peri, Roberto Romani, Gregor Belusi!c and Primo Pirih 7.1 Introduction 150 7.2 P. archon Reproductive Behavior 151 7.3 Host-Finding and Chemical Cues 155 7.4 Visual Cues: Their Roles in Mate and Host Location 160 References 167 8 Natural Enemies of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon 171 Lola Ortega-Garcia, Elisabeth Tabone, Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier, Dana Ment, Maurane Buradino, Josep A. Jaques, Inmaculada Garrido-Jurado, Oscar Dembilio and Enrique Quesada Moraga 8.1 Introduction 171 8.2 Natural Enemies 172 8.3 Perspectives on Biological Control of R. ferrugineus and P. archon 180 References 181 9 Visual Identification and Characterization of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon Infestation 187 Dimitris Kontodimas, Victoria Soroker, Costas Pontikakos, Pompeo Suma, Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier, Filitsa Karamaouna and Paola Riolo 9.1 Introduction 187 9.2 Non-Pathognomonic Symptoms 188 9.3 Pathognomonic Symptoms 191 9.4 Identification of RPWInfestation 201 9.5 Identification of PBM Infestation 202 9.6 Simultaneous Infestation of Both Pests and Co-Occurrence with Other Pests or Diseases 204 9.7 Conclusion 207 References 207 10 Surveillance Techniques and Detection Methods for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon 209 Victoria Soroker, Pompeo Suma, Alessandra La Pergola, Vicente Navarro Llopis, Sandra Vacas, Yafit Cohen, Yuval Cohen, Victor Alchanatis, PanosMilonas, Ofri Golomb, Eitan Goldshtein, Abd El Moneam El Banna and Amots Hetzroni 10.1 Introduction 209 10.2 Acoustic Detection 210 10.3 Chemical Detection 214 10.4 Thermal Detection 218 10.5 Detection of Pest Distribution by Monitoring Traps 220 10.6 Conclusion 226 References 228 11 CPLAS Information Systemas a Monitoring Tool for Integrated Management of Palm Pests 233 Costas Pontikakos, Filitsa Karamaouna, Amots Hetzroni, Dimitris Kontodimas, Victoria Soroker, Frosa Samiou, Yuval Cohen, Stella Giorgoudelli, OuraniaMelita, Stavros Papageorgiou, Paul Benjamin and Eitan Goldshtein 11.1 Introduction 233 11.2 CPLAS Architecture and Functions 234 11.3 Web-mapping Service of CPLAS 251 11.4 Conclusion 252 References 254 12 Control Measures Against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon 255 Josep A. Jaques, Paola Riolo, Neil Audsley, Joan Manel Barroso, Oscar Dembilio, Nunzio Isidoro, Roxana LuisaMinuz, Sandro Nardi, Vicente Navarro Llopis, Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier and Enrique Quesada Moraga 12.1 Why Control of R. ferrugineus and P. archon is so Difficult: Reasons to Deal with Both of these Pests Together 255 12.2 Current Control Methods 256 12.3 Future Needs and Trends 270 References 271 13 Action Programs for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon 280 Pompeo Suma, Ezio Peri, Alessandra La Pergola, Victoria Soroker, Oscar Dembilio, Paola Riolo and Sandro Nardi 13.1 Introduction 280 13.2 General Measures against all IAS 281 13.3 Threats and Risks presented by IAS:The case of RPWand PBM 282 13.4 The Action Plan as Part of a Global Strategy for the Containment of RPW and PBM Infestations 283 13.5 Analysis of Pest Status and Distribution of RPWand PBM as a Strategy for Detecting Change and Emerging Impacts 283 13.6 Establishing Effective Systems to Assess Risk and Prioritize Management 285 13.7 Definition of an EarlyWarning and Monitoring System 286 13.8 Citizen Involvement in Undertaking Voluntary Measures to Counteract the Spread of RPWand PBM 286 13.9 Setup of an RPWand PBM Portal Online 287 13.10 Development of Funding Mechanisms to Manage RPWand PBM Infestations 287 13.11 Case Studies 288 13.12 Action Programs for Agricultural and Non-Agricultural Areas 294 13.13 Conclusion and Future Outlook 296 References 296 Index 300
Victoria Soroker is Senior Researcher in the Department of Entomology at Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Israel and a lecturer at Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Her work over 30 years involves both basic aspects of insect physiology, chemical ecology and behavior of several insects and mites as well as applied research towards development of integrated pest management practices. For the last 16 years much of her research efforts have focused around finding solution for detection and control of the date palm pest and especially red palm weevil. Over the years she has mentored graduate students and published widely in peer-reviewed journals. Currently she serves as a president of the Entomological Society of Israel. Stefano Colazza is Professor at the Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences at the University of Palermo, Italy. He is a specialist in infochemicals and behavioral ecology of plant, insect, herbivores and insect parasitoid interactions, with a special interest in the chemical ecology of plant volatile organic compounds in a tri-trophic context. He has been involved in these research areas for over 30 years and his work has been published widely in peer-reviewed journals. He is the co-editor of Chemical Ecology of Insect Parasitoids (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013).