Guidelines for Mine Waste Dump and Stockpile Design is a comprehensive, practical guide to the investigation, design, operation and monitoring of mine waste dumps, dragline spoils and major stockpiles associated with large open pit mines. These facilities are some of the largest man-made structures on Earth, and while most have performed very well, there are cases where instabilities have occurred with severe consequences, including loss of life and extensive environmental and economic damage.
Developed and written by industry experts with extensive knowledge and experience, this book is an initiative of the Large Open Pit (LOP) Project. It comprises 16 chapters that follow the life cycle of a mine waste dump, dragline spoil or stockpile from site selection to closure and reclamation. It describes the investigation and design process, introduces a comprehensive stability rating and hazard classification system, provides guidance on acceptability criteria, and sets out the key elements of stability and runout analysis. Chapters on site and material characterisation, surface water and groundwater characterisation and management, risk assessment, operations and monitoring, management of ARD, emerging technologies and closure are included. A chapter is also dedicated to the analysis and design of dragline spoils.
Guidelines for Mine Waste Dump and Stockpile Design summarises the current state of practice and provides insight and guidance to mine operators, geotechnical engineers, mining engineers, hydrogeologists, geologists and other individuals that are responsible at the mine site level for ensuring the stability and performance of these structures.
1 Introduction Mark Hawley and John Cunning 1.1 General 1.2 Historical context 1.3 The Large Open Pit Project 1.4 Waste rock dump surveys and databases 1.5 Terminology 1.6 Waste dump and stockpile types 2 Basic design considerations Mark Hawley 2.1 General 2.2 Site selection factors 2.3 Initial site identification 2.4 Conceptual design 2.5 Pre-feasibility design 2.6 Feasibility design 2.7 Detailed design and construction 2.8 Operation 2.9 Closure 2.10 Study requirements 3 Waste dump and stockpile stability rating and hazard classification system Mark Hawley 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Waste dump and stockpile stability rating and hazard classification system 4 Site characterisation Michael Etezad, John Cunning, James Hogarth and Geoff Beale 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Site characterisation methods 4.3 Study areas 4.4 Field investigations for geotechnical conditions 5 Material characterisation Leonardo Dorador, John Cunning, Fernando Junqueira and Mark Hawley 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Foundation materials 5.3 Foundation soils 5.4 Foundation bedrock 5.5 Waste dump and stockpile fill materials 6 Surface water and groundwater characterisation Geoff Beale 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Investigation of surface water and groundwater 6.3 Conceptual hydrogeological model 6.4 Surface water characterisation 6.5 Infiltration and recharge 6.6 Hydrogeological modelling of the waste dump/stockpile facility 6.7 Modelling of the foundation materials 7 Diversions and rock drains James Hogarth, Andy Haynes and John Cunning 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Diversion channels 7.3 Rock drains 7.4 Other drainage elements 8 Stability analysis Mark Hawley, James Hogarth, John Cunning and Andy Haynes 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Factors affecting stability 8.3 Acceptance criteria 8.4 Failure modes 8.5 Static limit equilibrium analysis 8.6 Seismic stability analysis 8.7 Numerical methods 9 Runout analysis Oldrich Hungr 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Materials 9.3 Landslides resulting from failures of waste dumps 9.4 Mechanisms of failure propagation 9.5 Empirical methods of runout analysis and prediction 9.6 Dynamic runout analysis 9.7 Hazard and risk mapping 9.8 Protective measures 9.9 An example runout analysis 10 Risk assessment Brian Griffin 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Definition of risk 10.3 Types of risk receptors 10.4 Types of risk assessment 10.5 Risk mitigation and management 11 Operation Andy Haynes and Geoff Beale 11.1 Dump and stockpile management plan 11.2 Foundation preparation 11.3 Climatic conditions 11.4 Concurrent reclamation 11.5 Material quality control 11.6 Dumping operations 11.7Advance rate 12 Instrumentation and monitoring James Hogarth, Mark Hawley and Geoff Beale 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Visual inspections 12.3 Displacement monitoring systems 12.4 Surface water and groundwater monitoring 12.5 Monitoring guidelines and trigger action response plans 13 Dragline spoils John Simmons and Robert Yarkosky 13.1 Draglines 13.2 Dragline operating methods 13.3 Dragline tub slip 13.4 Dragline operating bench stability 13.5 Dragline dump profile stability 14 Management of acid rock drainage Ward Wilson 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Principles of acid rock drainage and metal leaching 14.3 Prevention and control of acid rock drainage through special handling techniques 14.4 Conclusion 15 Emerging technologies Ward Wilson 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Co-disposal techniques 15.3 Conclusions 16 Closure and reclamation Bjoern Weeks and Eduardo Salfate 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Approach to closure and reclamation planning 16.3 Geochemical stability 16.4 Physical stability 16.5 Land forms and erosion control 16.6 Revegetation Appendix 1 Summary of British Columbia Mine Waste Dump Incidents, 1968-2005 Appendix 2 Summary of the 2013 Mine Waste Dump Survey
Mark Hawley is the President and CEO of the Piteau Associates Group of Companies. He obtained a Bachelor of Applied Science in Geological Engineering from the University of British Columbia in 1979 and a Master of Science in Geotechnical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in 1983. He has been involved in engineering geology, rock mechanics, geotechnical and hydrogeological studies for more than 35 years, and has consulted on more than 65 major mining projects worldwide. He specializes in the investigation and design of high open pit slopes and waste rock dumps. John Cunning is a Principal and Geotechnical Engineer with Golder Associates in Vancouver, BC, Canada. He has a Bachelor degree in Civil Engineering (1991) and a Master's degree in Geotechnical Engineering (1994) from the University of Alberta. He has been involved in geotechnical engineering studies supporting tailings and mine waste management projects for more than 25 years. He specializes in investigation, design, operation and closure of tailings facilities, water management facilities and waste rocks dumps.