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Guide to Ruminant Anatomy

Dissection and Clinical Aspects

Mahmoud Mansour Ray Wilhite Joe Rowe

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Wiley-Blackwell
30 June 2017
Guide to Ruminant Anatomy: Dissection and Clinical Aspectspresents a concise, clinically relevant reference to goat and cattle anatomy, with color schematic illustrations and embalmed arterially injected prosection images for comparison.

Offers 244 color images depicting goat and cattle anatomy Provides selected line drawings correlated to dissection images of embalmed arterially injected specimens Takes a practical approach, with material organized by body system within each region Demonstrates the clinical relevance of basic anatomy Poses review questions in each chapter, with answers and videos provided on a companion website
By:   Mahmoud Mansour, Ray Wilhite, Joe Rowe
Imprint:   Wiley-Blackwell
Country of Publication:   United States
Dimensions:   Height: 252mm,  Width: 177mm,  Spine: 14mm
Weight:   604g
ISBN:   9781119051022
ISBN 10:   1119051029
Pages:   304
Publication Date:   30 June 2017
Audience:   Professional and scholarly ,  Undergraduate
Format:   Paperback
Publisher's Status:   Unspecified
Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv About the Companion Website xvii 1 The Head, Neck, and Vertebral Column 1 1.1 Skull 2 1.2 Mandible 9 1.3 Paranasal Sinuses 9 1.4 Vertebral Column 14 1.5 Teeth and Age Estimation of Cattle and Small Ruminants (Goats and Sheep) 16 1.5.1 Definitions and Criteria for Estimating the Age of Ruminants 20 1.5.2 Steps for Estimating the Age of Cattle 22 1.6 Joints of the Head 24 1.6.1 Temporomandibular Joint 24 1.6.2 Atlantooccipital Joint 24 1.6.3 Mandibular Symphysis 24 1.6.4 Vertebral Joints 25 1.7 Muscles of the Head 25 1.7.1 Cutaneous Muscles 27 1.7.2 Muscles of Facial Expression 28 1.7.3 Muscles of Mastication 28 1.7.4 Pharyngeal Muscles 28 1.7.4.1 Nomenclature of Pharyngeal Muscles 29 1.7.5 Laryngeal Muscles 29 1.7.6 Hyoid Muscles 29 1.7.7 Lingual Muscles 29 1.7.8 Extraocular Muscles 30 1.8 Blood Vessels, Lymph Nodes, and Nerves of the Head 30 1.8.1 Blood Vessels (Arteries and Veins) 30 1.8.1.1 Arteries of the Head 30 1.8.1.2 Veins of the Head 33 1.8.2 Lymph Nodes of the Head and Neck 33 1.8.3 Nerves of the Head 36 1.8.3.1 Summary of Cranial Nerves and Their Functions 36 1.9 Salivary Glands 40 1.10 The Pharynx 40 1.10.1 Oropharynx 40 1.10.2 Nasopharynx 40 1.10.3 Laryngopharynx 41 1.11 Tongue 41 1.12 The Larynx and Hyoid Apparatus 43 1.12.1 Larynx 43 1.12.2 Hyoid Apparatus 44 1.13 The Eye 45 1.13.1 Superficial Features of the Eye 45 1.13.2 Layers of the Eye 47 1.13.3 Sectioning of the Eyeball 49 1.13.3.1 Chambers of the Eye 49 1.13.4 Drainage Pathway of the Aqueous Humor 49 1.14 Neck Skeleton 49 1.15 Neck Muscles, Nerves, and Vessels 51 1.15.1 Neck Muscles 51 1.15.1.1 Superficial Neck Muscles 54 1.15.1.1.1 Brachiocephalicus Muscle 54 1.15.1.1.2 Omotransversarius Muscle 54 1.15.1.1.3 Trapezius Muscle 55 1.15.1.1.4 Sternocephalicus Muscle 55 1.15.1.1.5 Sternothyroideus and Sternohyoideus Muscles 55 1.15.1.2 Deep Neck Muscles 55 1.15.2 Nerves of the Neck 56 1.15.3 Blood Vessels of the Neck 57 1.16 Nuchal Ligament 57 1.17 Surface Topography (Head and Neck) 58 1.18 Lab ID List for the Head and Neck 62 2 The Thorax 65 2.1 Introduction 66 2.2 Bones of the Thorax 66 2.3 Thoracic Inlet 67 2.4 Basal Border of the Lung and Area for Lung Auscultation 68 2.5 Diaphragmatic Line of Pleural Reflection 68 2.6 Muscles of the Thoracic Wall 69 2.7 Pleura 72 2.7.1 Parietal Pleura 73 2.7.2 Visceral Pleura 73 2.7.3 Connecting Pleura 73 2.7.4 Content of the Pleural Cavity 74 2.7.5 Lung Lobes 74 2.7.6 Mediastinum 74 2.8 Vessels (Arteries and Veins) 75 2.8.1 Blood Circulation: An Overview 75 2.9 Major Veins of the Thorax 76 2.9.1 Cranial Vena Cava 77 2.9.2 Caudal Vena Cava 77 2.9.3 Azygos Veins (Left and Right) 77 2.10 Major Arteries of the Thorax 77 2.10.1 Brachiocephalic Trunk 77 2.10.2 Costocervical Trunk 77 2.10.3 Vertebral Artery 77 2.10.4 Superficial Cervical Artery 78 2.10.5 Internal Thoracic Artery 78 2.11 Lymphatic Structures 78 2.11.1 Thymus 78 2.11.2 Thoracic Duct 78 2.11.3 Mediastinal and Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes 79 2.12 Nerves (Motor Somatic, Sympathetic, and Parasympathetic) 80 2.12.1 Phrenic Nerve 80 2.12.2 Autonomic Nerves in the Thorax 80 2.12.3 Vagus Nerve 80 2.12.4 Sympathetic Trunk and Sympathetic Ganglia 81 2.13 Heart (Cor) 81 2.13.1 Pericardium 82 2.13.2 External Features of the Heart 82 2.13.3 Interior of the Heart 85 2.13.3.1 Structures of the Right Atrium 85 2.13.3.2 Structures of the Right Ventricle 86 2.13.3.2.1 Right Atrioventricular Valve 86 2.13.3.2.2 Chordae Tendineae, Papillary Muscles, and Cusps of the Right Atrioventricular Valve 87 2.13.3.2.3 Trabecula Septomarginalis 87 2.13.3.2.4 Ossa Cordis 87 2.13.3.2.5 Coronary Arteries 87 2.14 Point of Maximum Intensity or Puncta Maxima 88 2.15 Lab ID List for the Thorax 88 3 The Abdomen 91 3.1 Lumbar Vertebrae 92 3.1.1 Bovine Lumbar Vertebrae 92 3.1.2 Goat and Sheep Lumbar Vertebrae 92 3.2 Ligaments of Lumbar Vertebrae 93 3.2.1 Supraspinous Ligament 93 3.2.2 Interspinous Ligaments 93 3.2.3 Intertransverse Ligaments 93 3.2.4 Yellow Ligaments (Interarcuate or Ligament Flava) 93 3.2.5 Dorsal and Ventral Longitudinal Ligaments 94 3.2.6 Intervertebral Disc 94 3.3 Abdominal Wall 94 3.3.1 Paralumbar Fossa 94 3.3.2 Nerves of the Paralumbar Fossa (Flank Anesthesia) 94 3.3.3 Cutaneus Trunci and Omobrachialis Muscles 95 3.3.4 Tunica Flava Abdominis 98 3.3.5 External Abdominal Oblique Muscle 98 3.3.6 Internal Abdominal Oblique Muscle 101 3.3.7 Transversus Abdominis Muscle 102 3.3.8 Rectus Abdominis Muscle 102 3.3.9 Rectus Sheath 103 3.4 Abdominal Cavity 103 3.4.1 Dissection Plan 105 3.4.2 Peritoneum 105 3.4.3 Omentum 105 3.4.4 Ruminant Stomach 110 3.4.4.1 Reticulum 111 3.4.4.1.1 Cardia 116 3.4.4.3 Rumen 116 3.4.4.3 Omasum 120 3.4.4.4 Abomasum 122 3.5 Intestines 122 3.5.1 Small Intestine 124 3.5.1.1 Duodenum 124 3.5.1.2 Mesoduodenum 125 3.5.1.3 Duodenocolic Fold 125 3.5.1.4 Jejunum 125 3.5.1.5 Ileum 128 3.5.1.6 Ileal Orifice 128 3.5.1.7 Ileocecal Fold 128 3.5.2 Large Intestine 128 3.5.2.1 Cecum and Cecocolic Orifice 129 3.5.2.2 Ascending Colon 129 3.5.2.2.1 Proximal Loop 129 3.5.2.2.2 Spiral Loop 129 3.5.2.2.3 Distal Loop 129 3.6 Other Abdominal Organs 130 3.6.1 Liver 130 3.6.2 Spleen 130 3.6.3 Pancreas 130 3.6.4 Kidney 130 3.7 Vessels 134 3.7.1 Arteries 135 3.7.2 Veins 135 3.7.3 Lymphatics 136 3.8 Palpation of the Live Animal 137 3.9 Lab ID List for the Abdomen 137 4 The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs 139 4.1 Bones of the Pelvis 140 4.1.1 Os Coxae (Pelvic Bone) 140 4.2 Sacrosciatic Ligament 141 4.3 Pelvic Peritoneal Pouches 141 4.4 Urinary Bladder, Ureters, and Ligaments of the Bladder 143 4.5 Male Genitalia 143 4.5.1 Penis 144 4.5.1.1 Root of the Penis and Cavernous Tissue 145 4.5.1.2 Free Part of the Penis and Glans Penis 146 4.5.1.3 Retractor Penis Muscle 146 4.5.1.4 Apical Ligament 146 4.5.1.5 Dorsal Nerve of the Penis 148 4.5.2 Male Urethra 149 4.5.3 Prepuce 150 4.5.4 Superficial Inguinal (Scrotal) Lymph Nodes 151 4.5.5 Blood Supply to the Pelvic Viscera and Male Genitalia 152 4.5.6 Testes 152 4.5.7 Male Accessory Sex Glands 156 4.6 Female Reproductive Tract 157 4.6.1 Ovaries 158 4.6.2 Uterine Tubes 158 4.6.3 Uterine Horns 158 4.6.4 Uterine Body 159 4.6.5 Uterine Cervix 159 4.6.6 Vagina 161 4.6.7 Female Pudendum 161 4.6.7.1 Vestibule 161 4.6.7.2 Suburethral Diverticulum 162 4.6.7.3 Vulva 164 4.6.8 Blood Supply of the Female Genital Tract 164 4.6.9 Udder 164 4.6.9.1 Suspensory Apparatus and Interior Structures of the Udder 166 4.6.9.2 Blood Supply and Venous Drainage of the Udder 167 4.6.9.3 Lymphatics of the Udder 168 4.6.9.4 Innervation of the Udder 168 4.7 Live Cow 169 4.8 Lab ID List for the Pelvis and Reproductive Structures 170 5 The Forelimb 173 5.1 Introduction 174 5.2 Bones of the Thoracic Limb 174 5.2.1 Scapula 174 5.2.2 Humerus 176 5.2.3 Radius and Ulna 177 5.2.4 Carpus (Proximal and Distal Rows) 177 5.2.5 Metacarpal Bones (Large Metacarpal or Cannon Bone) 179 5.2.6 Digits 180 5.3 Muscles and Tendons of the Thoracic Limb 181 5.3.1 Extrinsic Muscles of the Forelimb 182 5.3.1.1 Trapezius Muscle (Cervical and Thoracic Parts) 182 5.3.1.2 Rhomboideus Muscle (Cervical and Thoracic Parts) 183 5.3.1.3 Brachiocephalicus Muscle (Cleidocephalicus and Cleidobrachialis) 183 5.3.1.4 Omotransversarius Muscle 184 5.3.1.5 Latissimus Dorsi Muscle 184 5.3.1.6 Superficial Pectoral Muscle (Descending and Transverse Parts) 185 5.3.1.7 Deep (Ascending) Pectoral Muscle 185 5.3.1.8 Serratus Ventralis Muscle 186 5.3.1.9 Subclavius Muscle 187 5.3.2 Intrinsic Muscles of the Thoracic Limb 187 5.3.2.1 Muscles of Proximal Limb (Shoulder and Brachium) 187 5.3.2.1.1 Supraspinatus Muscle 187 5.3.2.1.2 Infraspinatus Muscle 190 5.3.2.1.3 Deltoideus Muscle 190 5.3.2.1.4 Teres Minor Muscle 190 5.3.2.1.5 Teres Major Muscle 191 5.3.2.1.6 Subscapularis Muscle 191 5.3.2.1.7 Triceps Brachii Muscle (Long, Lateral, Accessory, and Medial Heads) 191 5.3.2.1.8 Anconeus Muscle 192 5.3.2.1.9 Tensor Fasciae Antebrachii Muscle 192 5.3.2.1.10 Coracobrachialis Muscle 192 5.3.2.1.11 Biceps Brachii Muscle 192 5.3.2.1.12 Brachialis Muscle 193 5.3.2.2 Muscles and Tendons of the Distal Limb (Antebrachium and Manus [Carpus, Metacarpus, and Digits]) 193 5.3.2.2.1 Craniolateral Group (Located on Cranial and Lateral Forearm) 193 5.3.2.2.2 Extensor Carpi Radialis Muscle 194 5.3.2.2.3 Common Digital Extensor Muscle (Medial and Lateral Heads and Three Tendons) 194 5.3.2.2.4 Lateral Digital Extensor Muscle 194 5.3.2.2.5 Ulnaris Lateralis Muscle 194 5.3.2.2.6 Extensor Carpi Obliquus Muscle 195 5.3.2.3 Caudomedial Muscle Group of the Antebrachium 196 5.3.2.3.1 Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle 196 5.3.2.3.2 Flexor Carpi Radialis Muscle 196 5.3.2.3.3 Pronator Teres Muscle 198 5.3.2.3.4 Superficial Digital Flexor with Superficial and Deep Parts: Flexor Manica 198 5.3.2.3.5 Deep Digital Flexor Muscle 198 5.3.2.3.6 Interosseus Muscle (Suspensory Ligament) with Axial and Abaxial Extensor Branches 198 5.4 Retinacula 200 5.5 Carpal Canal 200 5.6 Ligaments of the Digits 201 5.6.1 Proximal Interdigital Ligament 201 5.6.2 Distal Interdigital Ligament 201 5.6.3 Annular Ligaments (Palmar, Proximal, and Distal Digital Annular Ligaments) 201 5.6.4 Digital Annular Ligaments (Proximal and Distal) 201 5.7 Hoof (Wall, Sole, Bulb, and White Line) 201 5.8 Arteries and Nerves of the Thoracic Limb 203 5.8.1 Nomenclature of Blood Vessels and Nerves in the Distal Limb 203 5.9 Veins of the Forelimb 205 5.10 Lymphatics of the Thoracic Limb 206 5.11 Nerves of the Thoracic Limb 207 5.11.1 Suprascapular Nerve 207 5.11.2 Subscapular Nerve 207 5.11.3 Axillary Nerve 208 5.11.4 Musculocutaneous Nerve 209 5.11.5 Radial Nerve 209 5.11.5.1 Branching of the Radial and Ulnar Nerves in the Distal Limb 209 5.11.6 Median and Ulnar Nerves 212 5.12 Joints of the Forelimbs 212 5.12.1 Shoulder Joint 213 5.12.2 Elbow Joint 214 5.12.3 Carpal Joints 214 5.12.4 Digital Joints 215 6 The Hind Limb 217 6.1 Bones of the Hind Limb 218 6.1.1 Os Coxae (Hip Bone) 218 6.1.2 Femur (Thighbone) 218 6.1.3 Bones of the Leg (Crus) 221 6.1.4 Tarsal Bones 222 6.1.5 Fused Metatarsals III and IV (Large Metatarsal Bone) 223 6.1.6 Metatarsal Sesamoid Bone 224 6.2 Muscles of the Pelvic Limb 224 6.2.1 Muscles Acting on the Hip Joint 224 6.2.1.1 Gluteal Muscles 227 6.2.1.1.1 Tensor Fasciae Latae Muscle and Fascia Lata 227 6.2.1.1.2 Middle Gluteal Muscle 228 6.2.1.1.3 Deep Gluteal Muscle 228 6.2.1.2 Hamstring Muscles 228 6.2.1.2.1 Gluteobiceps Muscle 228 6.2.1.2.2 Semitendinosus Muscle 229 6.2.1.2.3 Semimembranosus Muscle 229 6.2.1.3 Medial Adductor Thigh Muscles 230 6.2.1.3.1 Sartorius Muscle 230 6.2.1.3.2 Gracilis Muscle 230 6.2.1.3.3 Pectineus Muscle 231 6.2.1.3.4 Adductor Muscle 231 6.2.1.3.5 External Obturator Muscle 231 6.2.2 Muscles Acting on the Stifle Joint 231 6.2.2.1 Quadriceps Femoris Muscle 231 6.2.3 Muscles Acting on the Hock and Digits 233 6.2.3.1 Craniolateral Muscles of the Leg (Crus) 233 6.2.3.1.1 Fibularis (Peroneus) Tertius Muscle 234 6.2.3.1.2 Long Digital Extensor Muscle 234 6.2.3.1.3 Lateral Digital Extensor Muscle 235 6.2.3.1.4 Cranial Tibial Muscle 235 6.2.3.1.5 Fibularis (Peroneus) Longus Muscle 236 6.2.3.2 Extensor Retinacula 237 6.2.3.3 Caudomedial Muscles of the Leg (Crus) 237 6.2.3.3.1 Soleus Muscle 237 6.2.3.3.2 Gastrocnemius Muscle (Lateral and Medial Heads) 237 6.2.3.3.3 Superficial Digital Flexor Muscle 237 6.6.3.3.4 Common Calcanean (or Calcaneal) Tendon and Calcanean Bursae 238 6.2.3.3.5 Deep Digital Flexor Muscle 238 6.2.3.3.6 Popliteus Muscle 238 6.2.3.3.7 Interosseus Muscle (Suspensory Ligament) 238 6.3 Blood Vessels and Nerves of the Hind Limbs 238 6.3.1 Overview of Arterial Blood Supply to the Whole Hind Limb 239 6.3.2 Veins of the Hind Limb 241 6.3.3 Lymphatic Structures of the Hind Limb 242 6.3.4 Nerves of the Hind Limb 243 6.3.4.1 Femoral Nerve 244 6.3.4.2 Obturator Nerve 245 6.3.4.3 Sciatic Nerve 245 6.3.4.4 Common Fibular (Peroneal) Nerve 245 6.3.4.5 Tibial Nerve 249 6.4 Joints of the Hind Limb 249 6.4.1 Hip Joint 249 6.4.2 Stifle Joint 249 6.4.3 Hock (or Tarsus) Joint 250 6.5 Live Cow 250 6.6 Lab ID List for Forelimb and Hind Limb 250 Appendix A Dissection Instructions for a Goat Cadaver 255 A.1 Dissection Labs 255 A.2 Dissection of Goat Neck and Body Cavities (Labs, 1, 2, and 3) 255 A.2.1 Removal of the Thoracic Limb 255 A.2.2 Removal of the Pelvic (Hind) Limb 256 A.2.3 Skinning of the Neck and Flank on the Side Where the Limbs are Removed 256 A.2.3.1 Neck 257 A.2.4 Opening the Thorax and Abdomen for Studying the Topography on the Left and Right Sides 257 A.2.5 Thorax 258 A.2.5.1 Thoracic Landmarks 258 A.2.5.2 Nerves and Vessels Within the Thorax 259 A.2.6 Abdomen (In Situ and on Extirpated Viscera) 260 A.2.7 Dissection of Male and Female Pelvis (Lab 4) 260 A.3 Head Dissection (Lab 5) 261 A.4 Forelimb Dissection (Labs 6 and 7) 261 A.5 Hind Limb Dissection (Labs 8 and 9) 261 Appendix B Further Reading 263 Index 265

Mahmoud Mansour, DVM, PhD is Professor of Veterinary Anatomy at Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama, USA. Ray Wilhite, MS, PhD is Anatomy Laboratory Coordinator at Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama, USA. Joe Rowe, DVM is Anatomy Instructor at Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama, USA.

Reviews for Guide to Ruminant Anatomy: Dissection and Clinical Aspects

The content material is clearly presented in 6 extremely well-organized chapters, each with a title and image of the relevant regional ruminant anatomy .This book is intended to be and will likely be most useful as a dissection guide for students; however, its organization will make it a beneficial addition to the library of clinicians as well. JAVMA, January 2018


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