Nowadays energy crisis and global warming problems are hanging over everyone's head, urging much research work on energy saving. In the ICT industry, which is becoming a major consumer of global energy triggered by the telecommunication network operators experiencing energy cost as a significant factor in profit calculations, researchers have started to investigate various approaches for power consumption reduction.
Standards bodies are already developing standards for energy-efficient protocols. However, research in green communications is still at an early stage, and the space of potential solutions is far from being fully explored. This book provides a comprehensive discussion of academic research and relevant applications in green communications. It aims to increase understanding of relevant issues and further the development of strategies and techniques.
Gathering efforts from world-leading experts on green topics with different focuses, such as mobile communications, wireless networks, ad hoc and sensor networks, cloud computing, optical networking, smart grids, network devices, even FPGA and terminal devices, combined with the best practices from the largest telecommunication operator, China Mobile Corporation, this book covers key features such as:
Not only focuses on energy saving of ICT industry, but also figures out its role to help other industries reduce energy consumption Comprehensively covers almost all main aspects in green communications Includes recent advances in theoretical analysis, algorithms, and practical applications for green wired and wireless communications Readers do not have to be professionals in communications to understand the basic ideas in the book This book brings green wired and wireless communications, as well as other general green topics, in one book, which will give readers a panoramic view in the relevant green fields.
Jinsong Wu (Alcatel Lucent Shanghai Bell China)
, Sundeep Rangan (Polytechnic Institute of New York University
, Honggang Zhang (Zhejiang University
Country of Publication:
14 October 2016
Runtime-Controlled Energy Reduction Techniques for FPGAs; Assem A. M. Bsoul, Stuart Dueck, and Steven J. E. Wilton Introduction Island-Style Field-Programmable Gate Arrays Architecture CAD Flow for FPGAs Power Dissipation in VLSI Dynamic Power Static Energy Reduction Techniques for FPGAs Clock Gating Controlled Body Biasing Dynamic Reconfiguration Multiple Supply Voltages CAD Techniques Other Techniques Runtime-Controlled Power-Gated FPGAs Architecture Description Evaluation Architecture Evaluation Example Application Conclusion Smart Grid and ICT's Role in Its Evolution; Hassan Farhangi Climate Change Conventional Electricity Grid Overview of Smart Grid Smart Grid Applications Command and Control Strategies Smart Grid Building Blocks Smart Grid Network Topologies Smart Grid Communication Systems Smart Grid ICT Future Developments Suggested Readings Energy Saving Solutions and Practices of China Mobile; Sen Bian, Huabin Tang, Xidong Wang, Jinsong Wu, and Zhihong Zhang, Chih-Lin I, and Bill Huang Introduction Energy Consumption Status and Objective of CMCC Views on Energy Saving of Wireless Communication Devices and Systems from CMCC Energy Saving Solutions for Wireless Networks The High-Energy-Efficient Hardware Platform RRUs in Distributed Base Stations Distributed RRU Networking Multi-Carrier Distributed Base Station Energy Saving Advantages Software Power-Saving Features Intelligent Power-Saving Technology GSM Intelligent Power-Saving System Based on Base Station Sector Switching System Overview Typical Power-Saving Proposals Highly Energy-Efficient RAN Network Architecture Energy Saving Proposals for Core Networks and Data Centers Energy Saving of Data Center Facilities Data Center Energy Efficiency Assessment and Optimization The Analysis of the Main Factors Affecting Energy Efficiency Technologies and Measures for Optimizing Energy Efficiency The Construction of the New Generation of Green Data Center Energy Saving of IT Equipment Improve Equipment Efficiency Requirements Applications of Server Virtualization Power Management for Cloud Computing Energy-Saving Solutions for Accessory Equipments Energy-Saving Solutions for the Refrigeration System Smart Ventilation System Heat-Pipe Heat-Exchanger Unit The Energy Saving Solutions for Backup Power Systems Lithium Iron-Phosphate Battery The Thermostat for Rechargeable Battery Energy Saving Solutions Using Renewable Energy Solar Energy Utilization for Base Stations Base Stations Powered by Wind Energy Technologies Standard Methodologies for Energy Efficiency Assessment; Raffaele Bolla, Roberto Bruschi, and Chiara Lombardo Introduction An Overview on Novel Green Network Technologies Internet Evolution and Concern over Energy Wastes Current Approaches and Concepts for Low-Energy Networking Benchmarking Methodologies ECR 3.0.1 ATIS 060015.03.2009 RFC 2544 Other Upcoming Propositions Comparison among the Standards Performance Evaluation Extending Current Evaluation Methodologies Test Results Conclusions Reciprocal Learning for Energy-Efficient Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks; Xianfu Chen, Zhifeng Zhao, Honggang Zhang, Jinsong Wu, and Tao Chen Introduction Network Model and Problem Formulation Distributed Learning Algorithms with Dynamic Conjectures A Best Response Learning Method for OSA The Best Response Strategies Global Convergence of the Dynamic Network OSA by Gradient Ascent Algorithms Numerical Results Conclusion Green Communications for Carbon Emission Reductions: Architectures and Standards; Charles Despins, Fabrice Labeau, Richard Labelle, Mohamed Cheriet, Alberto Leon-Garcia, and Omar Cherkaoui Introduction Network Architectures and Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions Networks and Protocols Integrated Optical-Wireless Access Data Centers Testbeds Greenstar NetVirt SAVI Carbon Standards for Communications Technologies Power and Performance Measurement Challenges Network and System Operation Challenges The Need for Carbon Standards Adapted to Communications Technologies Standards Development in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Conclusion The Role of ICT in the Evolution Towards Smart Grids; Raffaele Bolla, Flavio Cucchietti, and Matteo Repetto Introduction Legacy Energy Grids The Concept of Smart Grid Hot Topics for Smart Grids Load Management Wide Area Situation Awareness Distributed Generation Microgrids Energy Storage AMI Systems Electric Vehicles Energy Gateways Man-Machine Interfaces Network Management Grid Management Market Operations Political and Standardization Initiatives Policies and Directives Europe North America Asia Research Projects in Europe Standardization Efforts Architectures for Smart Grids Conceptual Models of Smart Grids Layout of the Communication System Distributed Services and Applications Data Models and Information Exchange Networking Communication Media and Technologies Network Architectures Local Area Networks Home Area Networks Access Networks Neighborhood Area Networks Wide Area Networks Research Issues and Challenges for ICT Moving a Processing Element from Hot to Cool Spots: Is This an Efficient Method to Decrease Leakage Power Consumption in FPGAs?; Amor Nafkha, Pierre Leray, Yves Louet, and Jacques Palicot Introduction Power Consumption Sources Static Power Short-Circuit Power Dynamic Power Dynamic Versus Static Power Digital Thermal Sensor Ring Oscillator vs. System Monitor Ring Oscillator vs. FPGA VCCINT Voltage Supply Experimental Setup Processing Element Number 1: Random Number Generator Processing Element Number 2: MicroBlaze Experiments and Results Temperature vs. Leakage Current Consumption FPGA Temperature Analysis Conclusion Cloud Computing - A Greener Future for IT; Jinzy Zhu and Xing Fang Introduction Why IT Needs to be Green Cloud Computing, the Future of IT What is Cloud Computing? Cloud Computing Classification Cloud Computing Characteristics Why does Cloud Computing Make IT Green? Cloud Foundation: Green Data Center Green Measurement, PUE Data Center Site Selection Datacenter Construction Power Conversion and UPS Cooling Cloud Building Block: Green Hardware Energy Saving Chip Energy Saving Hardware Cloud Core: Intelligent Management Software Virtualization Automation Autonomic Management Outlook to a Green Cloud Future Energy-Effcient Management of Campus PCs; Luca Chiaraviglio and Marco Mellia Introduction Motivations Reducing PCs Power Consumption: Why Now? Impact of PCs Power in Campus Environments Monitoring PC Usage Methodology Results Active Devices vs. Energy Consumption Device Classification Energy Consumption of Networked Devices Characterization of Users' Habit Discussion Reducing PC Energy Consumption PoliSave Architecture Client Architecture Server Architecture Communication Protocols Discussion and Implementation Issues Results Testbed Description Minimizing the Number of PCs On Automatic vs. Manual Operations Different Users' Profiles Users' Characterization Discussion Related Work Conclusion FOCUS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS C-RAN: A Green RAN Framework; Kuilin (Clark) Chen, Chunfeng Cui, Yuhong Huang, and Bill Huang Introduction Challenges of Today's RAN Explosive Network Data Traffic Large Number of BS and High Power Consumption Rapid Increasing CAPEX and OPEX Dynamic Mobile Network Load Growing Internet Service Pressure on the Core Network Architecture of C-RAN Overall Concept Different Technical Approaches Advantages of C-RAN Energy Efficient Perspective RAN Cost Structure Optimization Perspective Enhanced Network Performance Perspective Service on the Edge Challenges of C-RAN Efficient Transmission of Radio over Optical Transport Networks Cooperative Transmission and Reception on C-RAN Real-time Cloud and BS Virtualization Performance and Power Challenge of SDR on General Purpose Processor China Mobile's View on RAN Evolution Path Trials on GSM/TD-SCDMA Network Overall Situation Field Trial Area Overall Solution Progress in C-RAN PoC system Potential Evolution Path C-RAN Centralized Base Station Deployment Multi-Standard SDR and Joint Signal Processing Virtual BS on Real-time Cloud Infrastructure Conclusions Green Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks; Ting Zhu, Abedelaziz Mohaisen, Ping Yi, and Jianqing Ma Introduction Energy Harvesting Techniques Energy Conservation Techniques Energy Synchronization Techniques A Feedback-Based Energy Synchronization Control An Energy Synchronized Communication Protocol Green Wireless Communications under Quality of Service Constraints; Deli Qiao, Mustafa Cenk Gursoy, and Senem Velipasalar Introduction Preliminaries - Effective Capacity and Energy Per Information Bit Effective Capacity Spectral Efficiency vs. Bit Energy Variable-Rate/Variable-Power and Variable-Rate/Fixed-Power Transmissions Channel Model Energy Efficiency in the Low-Power Regime CSI at the Receiver Only CSI at Both the Transmitter and Receiver Energy Efficiency in the Wideband Regime CSI at the Receiver Only CSI at Both the Transmitter and Receiver Fixed-Rate/Fixed-Power Transmissions Channel Model Energy Efficiency in the Wideband Regime Energy Efficiency In The Low-Power Regime Transmissions over Imperfectly-Known Wireless Channels Training and Data Transmission Phases Training Phase Data Transmission Phase and Capacity Lower Bound Fixed-Rate Transmission and ON-OFF Model Optimal Training Power Energy Efficiency in the Low-Power Regime Energy Efficiency in the Wideband Regime Decomposing the Wideband Channel into Narrowband Subchannels Rich and Sparse Multipath Fading Scenarios Conclusion On the Energy Efficiency-Spectral Efficiency Trade-off in Cellular Systems; Fabien Heliot, Efstathios Katranaras, Oluwakayode Onireti, and Muhammad Ali Imran Introduction Background Literature Spectral Efficiency Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency-Spectral Efficiency Trade-Off Explicit Formulation vs. Approximation Low-Power Approximation Approach EE-SE Closed-Form Approximation Idealistic vs. Realistic Power Consumption Model Limitations on the Idealistic Power Model Realistic Power Model Perspective Power Model Mathematical Framework EE-SE Trade-Off on a Link AWGN Channel Deterministic Channel with Colored Gaussian Noise Ergodic Rayleigh Fading Channel Channel Capacity: CFE vs. CFA CFA of the MIMO EE-SE Trade-Off CFA of the SISO EE-SE Trade-Off Accuracy of the CFAs: Numerical Results MIMO vs. SISO: An Energy Efficiency Analysis MIMO vs. SISO EE Gain: Idealistic PCM MIMO vs. SISO EE Gain: Realistic PCM EE-SE Trade-Off in a Cell SISO Orthogonal Multi-User Channel SISO Multi-User Channel with Residual Interference EE-Based Resource Allocation Single User Optimal EE EE vs. SE Resource Allocation EE-SE Trade-Off in Cellular Systems The Key Role of CoMP in Cellular Systems Relevant Background on CoMP Power Model Implications Backhaul Signal Processing Global Cooperation: CFA of EE-SE Trade-Off EE-SE Analysis of the Symmetrical Cellular Model Clustered CoMP: The Transmit EE-SE Relationship Conclusion and Outlook Energy Savings for Mobile Communication Networks through Dynamic Spectrum and Traffic Load Management; Adnan Aijaz, Oliver Holland, Paul Pangalos, Hamid Aghvami, and Hanna Bogucka Background Dynamic Spectrum and Traffic Load Management Power Saving by Dynamically Powering Down Radio Network Equipment Cellular - Cellular Offloading Cellular - Wi-Fi Offloading Cellular - White-Fi Offloading Power Saving by Propagation Improvement Power Saving by Channel Bandwidth Increase or Better Balancing Performance Assessment Power Saving by Dynamically Powering Down Radio Network Equipment Cellular - Cellular Offloading Cellular - Wi-Fi Offloading Cellular - White-Fi Offloading Power Saving by Propagation Improvement Power Saving by Channel Bandwidth Increase or Better Balancing Conclusion Toward Energy-Efficient Operation of Base Stations in Cellular Wireless Networks; Kyuho Son, Hongseok Kim, Yung Yi, and Bhaskar Krishnamachari Introduction Overview of Green Cellular Network Design Energy-Aware Heterogeneous Deployment Micro Base Station Deployment Strategy System Model Problem Formulation Key Observations and Algorithm Numerical Results Deployment Structure: Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous System Model Problem Formulation Optimal Area Power Consumption vs. Target 10-Percentile Area Throughput Base Station On/Off and User Association A Quantitative Case Study System Model and Formulation Energy-Efficient User Association Traffic-Driven Base Station On/Off Greedy Turning on Algorithm Design Rationale Greedy Turning off Algorithm Discussion: GON and GOFF Interpretation Other Heuristic Algorithms Numerical Results Energy-Delay Tradeoff for Energy-Proportional BSs Energy-Delay Tradeoff for Non-Energy-Proportional BSs Effect of BS Density on Energy Savings Other Issues and Discussions Open Problems and Other Directions Towards Green Cellular Networks Ongoing Projects and Consortiums Green Wireless Access Networks; Istvan Godor & Pal Frenger, Oliver Blume, Hauke Holtkamp, Muhammad Imran, Attila Vidacs & Peter Fazekas, Dario Sabella, Emilio Calvanese Strinati & Rohit Gupta, Pekka Pirinen, and Albrecht Fehske Introduction Motivation Energy Efficiency and Network Technologies Energy Efficiency Evaluation Framework Cell Deployment Strategies Macro Cell Deployment Heterogeneous Cell Deployment Relaying Techniques Relaying Schemes Two Hop vs. Multicast Cooperative Relaying Hybrid Schemes for Two Hop Relaying Multi-RAT Deployment Aspects of LTE Roll-Out over Legacy Networks Topology Planning In Multi-RAT Environment Comparison of LTE and Legacy Networks Base Station Coordination and Cooperation Fractional Frequency Reuse Cooperating Base Stations Adaptive Network Reconfiguration Bandwidth Adaptation Multi-RAT Management Radio Resource Management Theoretical Considerations High Load Scheduling Low Load Scheduling Hardware Optimal Scheduling Complementary Research Activities for Access Networks Operator Cooperation Management of WLANs Hardware Techniques Future Architectures De-coupling of System Information and User Data Coverage Extension by Multihop Relaying Network Coding Summary and Outlook Energy Efficient Communications in MIMO Wireless Channels; Vineeth S. Varma, E. Veronica Belmega, Samson Lasaulce and Merouane Debbah Introduction On the Design of Energy-Efficient MIMO Single-User Communications General De nition of the Energy-Efficiency Performance Criterion Optimizing the Total Transmit Power and Power Allocation in MIMO Channels with Perfect CSI Static Links Fast Fading Links Slow Fading Links Energy Efficient Communication in MIMO Channels with Imperfect CSI Power Control Optimizing Training Sequence Length Optimizing the Number of Transmit Antennas Cross Layer Design in Energy-Efficient Communications On the Design of Energy-Efficient MIMO Multi-User Communications A Discussion on the Performance Criterion Power Control in Multi-Carrier CDMA Systems The Case of Specific Transmitter and Receiver Structures, Multiplexing and Diversity Gain Non-Cooperative Resource Allocation in Multi-User MIMO Systems Optimizing Transmit Power with a Matched Filter Optimizing the Choice of Linear Receiver Optimizing the Beamforming Vector Concluding Remarks and Open Issues Glossary Minimising Power Consumption to Achieve More Efficient Green Cellular Radio Base Station Designs; John S. Thompson, Peter M. Grant, Simon Fletcher, and Tim O'Farrell Introduction Explosive Traffic Growth Cellular Scenarios Energy Metrics Energy Reduction Techniques for High Traffic Load Scenarios Energy Reduction Techniques for Low Traffic Load Scenarios Other Energy Reduction Techniques Conclusion Energy Conservation of Mobile Terminals in Multi-cell TDMA Networks; Liqun Fu, Hongseok Kim, Jianwei Huang, Soung Chang Liew, and Mung Chiang Introduction Challenges and Our Solution Related Work System Model Power Consumption Model Inter-Cell Interference Dynamic User Sessions Problem Formulation and Decoupling Property Power Minimization in Multi-Cell Networks Intra-Cell Average Power Minimization Decoupling Property The DSP Algorithm DSP Algorithm When Î´ â ¤ 0 DSP Algorithm When Î´ > 0 Simulation results Power Consumption Improvement Reduction of the Inter-Cell Interference Power Level Convergence Performance Potential Research Directions Conclusion Energy Efficiency for Wireless Relay Systems; Jinho Choi, Duc To, Weixi Xing, Ye Wu, and Shugong Xu Introduction Background HARQ and Energy-Delay Tradeoff Wireless Relay Systems One-Way Relay Systems EDT with Amplify-and-Forward Protocol EDT with Decode-and-Forward Protocol Analysis and Numerical Results Two-Way Relay systems EDT with Analog Network Coding EDT with Physical-Layer Network Coding Analysis and Numerical Results Conclusions Holistic Approach to Green Wireless Communications Based on Multicarrier Technologies; Hanna Bogucka, Adrian Kliks, Pawe l Kryszkiewicz, and Oliver Holland Introduction Efficient Use of Natural Resources in Wireless Multicarrier Energy-and-Spectrum Efficient OFDM Adaptive Transmission OFDM Energy-Wastage Minimization Reducing the Electromagnetic Pollution OFDM Out-of-Band Radiation Reduction Holistic View On Reduction of Non-Linear Distortions In OFDM Spectrum Recycling in Future Multicarrier NC-OFDM Spectrum Access with Taxation Concluding Remarks Green Video Streaming over Cellular Networks; Yingsong Huang, Shiwen Mao, and Yihan Li Introduction Green Video Communications Video Communication System Overview Energy Efficiency in Video Coding Energy Efficiency in Video Transmission Joint Video Coding and Transmission Design Video over Emerging Wireless Networks Energy Efficient Downlink VBR Video Streaming Overview System Model Network and Video Source Model Power-Aware Transmission Scheduling Inequality and Theory of Majorization Majorization Preliminaries Schur-convexity of Problem (23.10) Power Allocation Algorithms Optimal Algorithm for Problem (23.10) Power Minimization Algorithm Optimality Proof Multiuser Video Transmissions Performance Evaluation Conclusion and Future Directions FOCUS ON WIRELINE COMMUNICATIONS Trading off Energy and Forwarding Performance in Next-Generation Network Devices; Raffaele Bolla, Roberto Bruschi, Franco Davoli, and Paolo Lago Introduction The Devices' Internal Sources of Energy Consumption Power Scaling Techniques A Theoretical Model of the Trade-Off Between Energy Consumption and Quality of Service Introducing Energy-Aware Parameters The Traffic Arrival Process Model The Queuing System Model Model Validation Conclusions Energy Efficient VI Planning over Converged Optical Network and IT Resources; Anna Tzanakaki, Markos Anastasopoulos, Konstantinos Georgakilas, Shuping Peng, Reja Nejabati, Eduard Escalona, and Dimitra Simeonidou Introduction Energy Consumption Models for the Physical Infrastructure Optical Network Elements Energy Consumption Models for Computing Resources Energy Aware VI Planning VI Problem Formulation VI Planning With Resilience Considerations Numerical Results and Comparisons Conclusions Energy Aware Techniques In IP-Over-WDM Backbone Networks; Antonio Cianfrani, Angelo Coiro, Vincenzo Eramo, and Marco Listanti Introduction Power Aware Network Topology Design Power Aware Virtual Topology Design (PA-VTD) Power Aware Routing and Wavelength Assignment (PA-RWA) Energy Aware Traffic Engineering EA-TE Overlay Strategies EA-TE Integrated Strategies Energy-Aware Network Management and Content Distribution; Luca Chiaraviglio and Ibrahim Matta Introduction Problem Formulation Classical Design Centralized Green Model Distributed Algorithms Dual Green Algorithm Benders Green Algorithm Performance Evaluation Centralized Model Impact of Cooperation Impact of QoS Constraints Impact of CP Location Distributed Algorithms Comparison Sensitivity Analysis Discussion Related Work Conclusions Energy Saving Strategies in Fixed Access Networks; Bjorn Skubic, Alexander Lindstrom, Einar In de Betou, Ioanna Pappa Introduction Technology Equipment Models System Specific Contributions Per-Line Comparison Architecture Dynamic Power Management Sleep Mode Conclusions Glossary Index
Dr. Jinsong Wu is the Founding Chair of the Technical Subcommittee on Green Communications and Computing (TSCGCC), IEEE Communications Society, which was officially approved and established in December 2011. He is the Vice-Chair, Track on Green Communication Systems and Networks, the Selected Areas in Communications Symposium, IEEE GLOBECOM 2012. He is one of Technical Program Committee Chairs, the 2012 IEEE Online Conference on Green Communications. He is the proposer and the Moderator/Chair of the Technical Panels on Green Communications and Computing in the IEEE INFOCOM 2012, IEEE ICC 2012, and IEEE GLOBECOM 2012. He obtained Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Since 2010, he has worked as Research Scientist in Bell Laboratories, Shanghai, China. He has experienced research and development positions relevant to communications engineering in Nortel Networks Canada, Philips Research USA, and Sprint-Nextel USA. His recent research interests lie in green communications and computing, communications theory and signal processing, cognitive networks, space-time-frequency processing and coding, cooperative communications, quality of service, iterative processing, and communication optimization. He has served as technical program committee members in more than 26 leading international telecommunications relevant conferences or workshops, such as IEEE GLOBECOM, IEEE ICC (main symposia and workshops), IEEE VTC (main tracks and workshops), IEEE ISCIT, iCOST, WAC, FutureTech, and so on. He currently is an IEEE Senior Member. Dr. Sundeep Rangan received the B.A.Sc. at the University of Waterloo, Canada and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. at the University of California, Berkeley, all in Electrical Engineering. He has held postdoctoral appointments at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and Bell Labs. In 2000, he co-founded (with four others) Flarion Technologies, a spinoff of Bell Labs, that developed Flash OFDM, one of the first cellular OFDM data systems. Flarion grew to over 150 employees with trials worldwide. In 2006, Flarion was acquired by Qualcomm Technologies where Dr. Rangan was a Director of Engineering involved in OFDM infrastructure products. He joined the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Polytechnic Institute of New York University, USA, in 2010. His research interests are in wireless communications, signal processing, information theory and control theory. Dr. Honggang Zhang is a Full Professor of Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering as well as the Co-Director of York-Zhejiang Lab for Cognitive Radio and Green Communications at the Zhejiang University, China. He is an Honorary Visiting Professor of the University of York, UK. He received the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Kagoshima University, Japan, in March 1999. From October 1999 to March 2002, he was with the Telecommunications Advancement Organization (TAO) of Japan, as a TAO Research Fellow. From April 2002 to November 2002, he joined the TOYOTA IT Center. From December 2002 to August 2004, he has been with the UWB Research Consortium, the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) of Japan. He was the principle author and contributor for proposing DS-UWB in IEEE 802.15 WPAN standardization task group. From September 2004 to February 2008, he has been with CREATE-NET (Italy), where he leaded its wireless teams in exploring Cognitive Radio (CR) and UWB technologies while participated the European FP6/FP7 projects (EUWB, PULSERS 2). Dr. Honggang Zhang serves as the Chair of Technical Committee on Cognitive Networks (TCCN) of the IEEE Communications Society (ComSoc). He was the Co-Chair of IEEE Globecom 2008 Symposium. He was the founding TPC Co-Chair of CrownCom 2006 as well as the Steering Committee Member of CrownCom 2006-2009. In the area of green communications, Dr. Honggang Zhang was the Lead Guest Editor of the IEEE Communications Magazine special issues on \Green Communications . He was the General Chair of IEEE/ACM GreenCom 2010 (2010 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Green Computing and Communications) and the Co-Chair of the IEEE International Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm 2010-2011) in conjunction with IEEE ICC/Globecom. He is the co-author/editor of the book Cognitive Communications - Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI), Regulatory Policy & Economics, Implementation , published by Wiley Press.