Masaru Kohno received his PhD in Political Science from Stanford University in 1994. He had previously taught at the University of British Columbia and had been a National Fellow at Hoover Institution, before he joined Waseda University in Tokyo where he is currently a professor in the Department of Political Science and Economics. Professor Kohno also serves as a Senior Program Officer of the Social Science Section at Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Yoshitaka Nishizawa received his PhD in Political Science from Yale University in 1989. He first taught at Meijigakuin University in Tokyo and he moved to Doshisha University in Kyoto in 1997. Professor Nishizawa is a member of the American Political Science Association, the Japanese Political Science Association, and the Japanese Association of Electoral Studies (JAES). He served as President for the JAES for the 2010-12 term.