Recent research has brought the application of microwaves from the classical fields of heating, communication, and generation of plasma discharges into the generation of compact plasmas that can be used for applications such as FIB and small plasma thrusters. However, these new applications bring with them a new set of challenges. With coverage ranging from the basics to new and emerging applications, Compact Plasma and Focused Ion Beams discusses how compact high-density microwave plasmas with dimensions smaller than the geometrical cutoff dimension can be generated and utilized for providing focused ion beams of various elements.
Starting with the fundamentals of the cutoff problem for wave propagation in waveguides and plasma diagnostics, the author goes on to explain in detail the plasma production by microwaves in a compact geometry and narrow tubes. He then thoroughly discusses wave interaction with bounded plasmas and provides a deeper understanding of the physics. The book concludes with an up-to-date account of recent research on pulsed microwaves and the application of compact microwave plasmas for multi-element FIB.
It provides a consolidated and unified description of the emerging areas in plasma science and technology utilizing wave-based plasma sources based on the author's own work and experience. The book will be useful not only to established researchers in this area but will also serve as an excellent introduction to those interested in applying these ideas to various current and new applications.
CRC Press Inc
Country of Publication:
12 December 2013
IntroductionPlasmaParticle InteractionsSome Basic Plasma PropertiesCriterion for the Definition of a PlasmaDifferent Types of PlasmasDescription of PlasmasTheoretical ApproachesMicrowave-Generated PlasmasCompact Microwave Plasma SourcesResearch Objective and MethodsReferencesReview of the Cutoff ProblemA Brief History of Earlier WorkMicrowave Propagation in WaveguidesPlasma Density CutoffReferencesPlasma and Wave DiagnosticsPlasma Diagnostics with Langmuir's ProbesDesign of Electromagnetic ProbesReferencesGenesis of a Wave Induced Discharge: A New PerspectiveIntroductionHistorical Development of Breakdown StudiesModeling of the Electron DynamicsDevelopment of the General AlgorithmField-Free Case: Three-Dimensional Random WalkElectron Transport in the Presence of an EM FieldMagnetostatically Assisted Electron Transport in the Presence of an EM FieldElectric Field Effects and the Random Walk ParameterLinear and Circularly Polarized WavesSummary and ConclusionReferencesPlasma Production in Continuous-Mode Microwaves: Near-Circular MulticuspIntroductionApparatusMulticusp DesignWaveguide DesignExperimental ResultsSpatial Profiles of the PlasmaDiscussionConclusionsReferencesPlasma Production in Continuous-Mode Microwaves: Rectangular Nonmulticusp WaveguideIntroductionExperimental ProceduresExperimental ResultsDiscussionConclusionsReferencesComparison of Square and Near-Circular Multicusp WaveguidesIntroductionWaveguide DesignExperimental ResultsDiscussionConclusionsSummary of Experimental Results in Continuous-Mode MicrowavesSummary of the Plasma Production MechanismsReferencesPlasma Production in Pulsed-Mode Microwaves: General ExperimentIntroductionApparatus and Methods of the Experiment in a Circular Waveguide with a Dimension below CutoffSome Additional Details of the Experimental Set-UpProbe for Measuring the Electric FieldExperimental ResultsDiscussionConclusionsReferencesPlasma Production in Pulsed-Mode Microwaves: Circular Multicusp Waveguide with a Dimension below CutoffIntroductionExperimental Setup and ProceduresExperimental ResultsDiscussionConclusionsReferencesPlasma Buildup by Short-Pulse, High-Power MicrowavesIntroductionExperimentsDiscussionConclusionReferencesPower Absorption and Intense Collimated Beam Production in a Pulsed High-Power Microwave Ion SourceIntroductionIon Source Design and Experimental SetupExperimental ResultsDiscussionConclusionsSummary in Pulsed MicrowavesReferencesNew Experiments in Continuous-Mode Microwaves: Formation of Standing Waves and Electron TrappingOverview of the New Experimental SystemIntroductionSpatial Plasma CharacteristicsAxial Wave Field Intensity MeasurementsElectron Trapping in SW MinimaModel CalculationSummary and DiscussionReferencesPenetration and Screening of Perpendicularly Launched Electromagnetic WavesIntroductionExperimental SetupExperimental ObservationModelingModeling ResultsDiscussion and SummaryReferencesWave Birefringence in Perpendicular PropagationIntroductionPolar Plasma CharacteristicsPolar Wave Field Intensity MeasurementsModeling of the Wave BirefringenceDiscussion and SummaryReferencesElectron Localization and Trapping Physics RevisitedIntroductionExperimental SetupExperimental ResultsModelingModeling ResultsSummary and DiscussionReferencesNew Experiments in Pulsed Microwaves: Quasisteady-State Interpulse PlasmasIntroductionExperimentExperimental ResultsModel CalculationDiscussion and ConclusionReferencesElectron Plasma Waves Inside Large-Amplitude Electromagnetic PulsesIntroductionExperimental SetupExperimental ResultsTime-Frequency AnalysisModelSummaryReferencesTransition from Interpulse to Afterglow PlasmasIntroductionExperimental SetupResultsSummaryReferencesIntroduction to Focused Ion BeamsFocused Ion BeamsReferencesExperimental Setup for Basic Plasma StudiesIntroductionBasic Plasma ExperimentsMeasurement of Plasma ParametersSub-Cutoff Dimensional Plasma SourcesConclusionReferencesBasic Beam Studies: Extraction and Ion Energy DistributionIntroductionExperimentResults and DiscussionConclusionReferencesMultielement Focused Ion BeamIntroductionBeam Column of MEFIBBeam Simulation CodesResults and DiscussionTolerance StudiesConclusionReferencesFocused Ion Beam ExperimentsIntroductionResults and DiscussionConclusionReferencesSummary and Future ProspectsIndex
Reviews for Compact Plasma and Focused Ion Beams
In his book, Professor Bhattacharjee has shown how compact and overdense plasmas in the microwave regime can be generated and sustained using multicusp magnetic fields. Detailed investigations of the physics of wave interactions with such bounded plasmas have been carried out and elaborated in the book, including adequate theoretical treatments and modeling. ... The book reports several new findings in this class of plasmas ... the latter half of the book is devoted to generation of multi-element focused ion beams (FIB) from these compact plasmas to widen the scope of research and applications of present day FIB systems. ... The book will also be useful to graduate students or researchers wanting to learn experimental plasma physics in general and or entering the research area of wave-assisted plasmas. -Hiroshi Amemiya, RIKEN Expert Corps Research and Development Inc. (Rec-Rd Inc.), Wako, Saitama, Japan ... valuable treatise on compact plasma production and its applications ... The book will be useful not only to researchers in this area but will also serve as an excellent introduction to those contemplating to apply these ideas to various current and new applications. My congratulations to the author on this excellent contribution. -Abhijit Sen, Institute for Plasma Research, India This book addresses one of the popular methods used to create dense plasmas: microwave sources. It is addressed to those wishing to have a more profound understanding of the physics of microwave plasma generation in small sources and the details of the extraction of kilovolt ion beams from such a source. I can recommend this book to all who wish to enter this new area of technological development. -Rod Boswell, Australian National University, Canberra The book is rich in knowledge on physics of wave interaction with plasmas sustained in compact geometries in multicusp magnetic fields and, furthermore, suggests a novel application of ion beams obtained from these plasmas. I am confident that the readers will benefit much from this book. The author is congratulated on completing this outstanding piece of work. -Takahide Nakagawa, RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Japan The book provides a timely account of this emerging and exciting field of microwave plasmas, and it is written by an author who has worked in the frontier of the field for nearly two decades. The text is clear and concise. No print is wasted on lengthy expansions of basic textbook introductions to plasma physics. Instead, the focus turns immediately to the most relevant topics necessary to understand this particular type of plasma production. ... a thorough discussion on wave interaction with bounded plasmas provides a deeper understanding of the physics. ... This important book is a must for graduate students and researchers in experimental plasma physics who want to get up to speed with the latest research in compact microwave plasmas! -Ashild Fredriksen, University of Tromso, Norway