Divided into two volumes, this accessible work describes the principles involved in hard rock blasting as applied to open pit mines. A large number of examples illustrate the application of the principles. The first volume introduces basic engineering concepts and the building blocks that make up a blast design. The second volume goes into more depth to provide a better understanding of the fundamental concepts involved in rock blasting. Both volumes provide a basis for engineers to improve their blasting operations and their understanding of blasting papers that appear in technical literature.
William A. Hustrulid (University of Utah Salt Lake City USA)
A A Balkema Publishers
25 August 2005
Professional and scholarly
Professional & Vocational
A / AS level
Further / Higher Education
Mixed media product
Volume 1 1. An Historical Perspective 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Mine design factors 1.3. The steam shovel 1.4. Haulage 1.5. Drilling and blasting 1.6. Production statistics 1.7. Production strategy then and now References and bibliography 2. The Fragmentation System Concept 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Mine-mill fragmentation systems 2.3. The energy required in fragmentation 2.4. Fragmentation evaluation 2.5. Optimum fragmentation curves 2.6. Fragmentation systems engineering in practice 2.7. Summary References and bibliography 3. Explosives as a Source of Fragmentation Energy 3.1. Explosive power 3.2. Pressure-volume curves 3.3. Explosive strength 3.4. Energy use 3.5. Summary References and bibliography 4. Preliminary Blast Design Guidelines 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Blast design rationale 4.3. Ratios for initial design 4.4. Ratio-based blast design example 4.5. The Ash design standards 4.6. Determination of KB 4.7. Simulation of different design alternatives 4.8. Rock structure and blast pattern design 4.9. Measure-while-drilling systems 4.10. Rock blastability 4.11. Fragmentation prediction References and bibliography 5. Drilling Patterns and Hole Sequencing 5.1. Blast round terminology 5.2. Energy coverage 5.3. The influence of face shape 5.4. One and two row blasts 5.5. Size and shape of blasts 5.6. Some sequencing principles References and bibliography 6. Sinking Cut Design 6.1. Introduction 6.2. Bench blasting zone 6.3. The shallow zone 6.4. The transition region 6.5. Sinking cut example References and bibliography 7. Bulk Blasting Agents 7.1. Introduction 7.2. ANFO 7.3. Aluminized ANFO 7.4. Light ANFO 7.5. Water gels/slurries 7.6. Emulsions 7.7. Heavy ANFO References and bibliography 8. Initiation Systems 8.1. Introduction 8.2. Initiation and propagation of the detonation front 8.3. Primers and boosters 8.4. The end initiation of explosive columns 8.5. The side initiation of explosives 8.6. Initiating devices 8.7. Blast sequencing 8.8. Initiation example References and bibliography 9. Environmental Effects 9.1. Ground motion 9.2. Airblast 9.3. Flyrock References and bibliography 10. Perimeter Blasting 10.1. Introduction 10.2. Tailoring the energy of explosives 10.3. Special damage control techniques 10.4. Perimeter control design approaches References and bibliography Volume 2 11. Fundamentals of Explosives 11.1. Design of explosives 11.2. A simplified calculation of blasthole conditions 11.3. Detailed analysis of explosion parameters References and bibliography 12. Blasting in the Absence of a Free Surface 12.1. Blasting with a long cylindrical charge 12.2. Blasting with a spherical charge References and bibliography 13. The Effect of the Shock Wave 13.1. Introduction 13.2. Wave and particle velocity 13.3. Wave energy and momentum 13.4. Spalling 13.5. Assistance/retardation of crack growth References and bibliography 14. Attenuation 14.1. Introduction 14.2. Plain wave damping in a continuous bar 14.3. Plain wave damping in a discontinuous bar 14.4. Wave attenuation and the 'Q' factor 14.5. Waveform frequency analysis 14.6. Laboratory studies of attenuation References and bibliography 15. Spherical Charges 15.1. Introduction 15.2. The field studies 15.3. A practical demonstration of some key concepts 15.4. Single shot results in lithonia granite 15.5. Multiple shot results in lithonia granite 15.6. Effect of explosive type 15.7. Application to other rock types References and bibliography 16. Cylindrical Charges 16.1. Introduction 16.2. The basic string charge model 16.3. The Starfield seed waveform approach 16.4. Field confirmation of the seed waveform approach 16.5. The spherical charge model 16.6. The effect of subdrilling on bench toe breakage References and bibliography 17. Decoupling 17.1. Basic concept 17.2. USBM field decoupling experiments 17.3. THe USBM predictive model 17.4. A power-law based predictive model 17.5. Exponential law-based radial strain model 17.6. Favreau-based radial strain model 17.7. Decoupling experiments using cylindrical charges References and bibliography 18. Heave 18.1. Introduction 18.2. Basic heave action as captured photographically 18.3. Empirical analysis of heave parameters 18.4. The contribution of the shock wave and gas pressure to heave 18.5. An analytical expression for burden face velocity 18.6. Three-dimensional kinematic model of muckpile formation 18.7.Have modelling using the distinct element code, DMC-Blast 18.8. Heave results using other models References and bibliography 19. The Basics of Cratering 19.1. Introduction 19.2. The cratering concept presented as a thought-experiment 19.3. Equation development 19.4. Experimental procedure 19.5. Analysis of sample cratering data 19.6. Forward design example (Iron Ore Company) 19.7. Forward design example (Dow Chemical Company) 19.8. Evaluation of a current blasting pattern 19.9. Some cratering test results 19.10. Summary References and bibliography 20. Hydrodynamic-Based Models 20.1. Introduction 20.2. Fundamentals of hydrodynamics 20.3. The problem statement and modelling assumptions 20.4. The velocity potential 20.5. A single charge in a half space 20.6. Modelling of bench blasting geometries 20.7. The field example 20.8 Conclusion References and bibliography 21. Selected Russian Contributions 21.1. Introduction 21.2. Explosive properties 21.3. Laboratory properties 21.4. Theoretical extent of blast damage zones 21.5. Observations of blast damage zones 21.6. A blastability index References and bibliography Index
William Hustrulid studied Minerals Engineering at the University of Minnesota. After obtaining his Ph.D. degree in 1968, his career has included responsible roles in both mining academia and in the mining business itself. He has served as Professor of Mining Engineering at the University of Utah and at the Colorado School of Mines and as a Guest Professor at theTechnical University in LuleAY, Sweden. In addition, he has held mining R&D positions for companies in the USA, Sweden, and the former Republic of Zaire. He is a Member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and a Foreign Member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA). He currently holds the rank of Professor Emeritus at the University of Utah and manages Hustrulid Mining Services in Spokane,Washington.