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Beach-Spawning Fishes

Reproduction in an Endangered Ecosystem

Karen L.M. Martin (Pepperdine University, Malibu, California, USA)



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Apple Academic Press Inc.
24 September 2014
Beach-spawning fishes from exotic locations on most continents of the world provide spectacular examples of extreme adaptations during the most vulnerable life cycle stages. The beauty, intriguing biology, and importance of these charismatic fishes at the interface of marine and terrestrial ecosystems have inspired numerous scientific studies. Adaptations of behavior, physiology, development, and ecology are gathered together for the first time in this book.

Beach-Spawning Fishes: Reproduction in an Endangered Ecosystem is a comprehensive guide to beach spawning, a charismatic animal behavior that is seen in a surprising number of teleost species. This unexpected form of reproduction provides a window into the ecology of coastal areas, the behaviors and physiology necessary for fishes and their eggs to adapt to terrestrial conditions, and the threats and challenges for conservation and management. Beach-spawning species include important forage fishes such as the capelin, exotic fishes such as the fugu puffer, and the spectacular midnight runs of the California grunion.
By:   Karen L.M. Martin (Pepperdine University Malibu California USA)
Imprint:   Apple Academic Press Inc.
Country of Publication:   Canada
Dimensions:   Height: 234mm,  Width: 156mm,  Spine: 20mm
Weight:   454g
ISBN:   9781482207972
ISBN 10:   1482207974
Pages:   223
Publication Date:   24 September 2014
Audience:   College/higher education ,  Professional and scholarly ,  A / AS level ,  Further / Higher Education
Format:   Hardback
Publisher's Status:   Active
A Leap of Faith: Evolution of Beach Spawning Behavior Overview of Biogeography and Ecology of Beach-Spawning Fishes Fish Families with Many Intertidal Species Also Have Many Species that Spawn on Beaches Some Lineages Indicate Independent Origins of Beach-Spawning Behavior Some Teleost Fish Species Spawn on Beaches and Other Habitats Lineages that Include Multiple Species of Beach-Spawning Fishes Show Multiple Independent Origins of this Behavior The Leap of Faith, Plastic Behavior, and Evolution Surf, Sand, and Beach: Physical Conditions of Shore Habitats for Fishes Tidal Ebb and Flow Alter Habitat Conditions Rapidly and Predictably on Beaches Some Fish Species Are Resident in the Intertidal Zones During All Parts of the Tidal Cycle; Others Visit only at High Tide Beach Spawning Usually Occurs During High Tides for Fishes Beach Spawning Behavior in Fishes May Not involve Air-Breathing Beach Spawning Occurs on Specific Substrates Few Species of Freshwater Fishes Spawn at the Water's Edge Air, Fresh Water and Sea Water Have Very Different Properties As Respiratory Media Beach Spawning Fishes Are Global in Distribution Locals only: Beach Spawning Behavior in Resident intertidal Fishes Many Teleosts Reproduce with Pelagic Eggs Beach Spawning Fishes Produce Demersal Eggs Diverse Mating Behaviors and Mating Systems Are Seen in Beach-Spawning Fishes that Are Intertidal Residents Fishes that Reside in the Rocky Intertidal Zone Spawn on the Rocky Beach Fishes in Estuaries Spawn on Beaches at the Water's Edge Or on Intertidal Mudflats Summary of Beach Spawning By Resident Intertidal Fishes Vacation Sex: Subtidal Fishes that Make Spawning Migrations to the Beach Some Species Migrate into the Rocky Intertidal Zone to Spawn Some Species Migrate onto Gravel Beaches to Spawn Some Fishes Migrate onto Sandy Beaches to Spawn Some Fishes Spawn on Intertidal Or Nearshore Vegetation Some Beach Spawning Fishes Are Anadromous Or Catadromous Some Fishes Appear to Be Making a Transition Toward Beach Spawning Summary for Fishes that Migrate From Other Habitats to Spawn on Beaches Catching A Breath: Beach Spawning Fishes and Air-Breathing How Are Emergence and Air-Breathing Beneficial for Beach Spawning Fishes? Intertidal Fishes Show Gradients of Amphibious Behavior and Air-Breathing Respiratory Structures for Amphibious Fishes Are Similar for Water and Air Respiratory Structures Undergo Modification as Conditions Change Metabolic Rate in Air During Emergence Is Similar to Metabolic Rate in Water for Many Amphibious Fishes Terrestrial Activity Increases the Rate of Aerial Gas Exchange for Amphibious Fishes Many Amphibious Fishes Show Hypoxia Tolerance Estuarine Fishes that Spawn on Beaches May Breathe Air Whether Or Not they Emerge Fishes that Migrate into the Intertidal Zone and Emerge During Beach Spawning Do Not Breathe Air The Gas Bladder Has Non-Respiratory Functions in Beach Spawning Fishes Air Emergence Has Physiological Consequences for Fishes Summary and Consequences: Adults Have Greater Physiological Tolerance to Hypoxia than Embryos; Embryos Are Better Suited for Air Exposure Unsafe Sex: the Dangers of Novel Predators and Other Terrestrial influences for Beach-Spawning Fishes and their Embryos Marine and Avian Predators Attack Beach Spawning Fishes in the Ocean Marine and Terrestrial Predators Attack During Beach Spawning Runs Predation Occurs on Incubating Eggs and Embryos on Beaches Egg Predation Occurs By Cannibalism During Spawning and Incubation on the Beach Predation May Occur in the Nest on Guarding Parents and Embryos Human Fisheries Target Some Beach Spawning Fishes Parasites Attack Beach Spawning Fishes From Within Beach Babes: Terrestrial Incubation and Beach-Spawning Fishes Demersal Eggs Are Well Suited for Beach Spawning The Chorion Surrounds and Protects the Embryo Oviposition Height Is Species-Specific and Mediates Between Opposing Risks of Aquatic Hypoxia and Aerial Desiccation Embryos on Beaches May Incubate for Long Periods of Time Some Beach-Spawning Fishes Have Environmental Sex Determination Embryos Develop Terrestrially to Hatching Competence Some Species Wait for An Environmental Cue to Hatch Perilous Return to the Sea: Hatching After Beach Incubation Incubation on Beaches Exposes Fish Embryos to the Danger of Hatching on Land Hatchlings Must Navigate the Perilous Return to the Sea Hatching Competence Requires the Appropriate Stage of Development Hatching Is a Two-Stage Process involving Chemical and Mechanical Steps Hatching May Be Initiated Or Synchronized By Environmental Cues The Mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus Hatches in Response to A Chemical Cue, Aquatic Hypoxia The California Grunion Leuresthes tenuis Hatches in Response to A Mechanical Cue, Agitation in Seawater The Mudskipper Periophthalmus modestus Hatches in Response to Parental Intervention and Aquatic Hypoxia Extended Incubation May Arrest Development But Differs From Metabolic Arrest During Diapause Summary of the Challenges and Mechanisms for Hatching on Beaches Coastal Squeeze: New Threats to Beach Spawning Fishes and their Critical Habitats Coastal Construction and Shoreline Armoring Alter Beaches Pollution of Water and Land Can Harm Fishes at All Life Stages Some Beach Spawning Fishes Are Caught By Commercial or Recreational Fishing Maintenance Activities and Management Actions Can Affect Spawning Sites on Recreational Beaches Industrial Activities Near Beaches Can Impact Fishes Climate Change and Sea Level Rise May Cause Loss of Beach Habitat Summary of New Threats to Beach Spawning Fishes Waves of Passion: Conservation Efforts for Beach Spawning Fishes California Greets the Grunion Beach-Spawning Fishes Have Friends on the Shoreline in Washington State Canadians Care About Capelin Kusafugu Are Cultural Treasures in Japan Celebrations of Beach Spawning Fishes in Sausalito, California Whitebaiters in New Zealand Protect their Recreation Forage Fish Initiatives Address Ecological Concerns Summary: Local Ecological Knowledge Is Needed for Conservation

Karen L. M. Martin, PhD, is professor of biology and Frank R. Seaver Chair in Natural Science at Pepperdine University in Malibu, California. She is a fellow of the American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists, and active in the American Fisheries Society, the American Society of Ichthyologists, and Herpetologists, the Society for Integrative and Comparitive Biology, and other scientific organizations. She has published extensively on studies of animals at the interface between water and land and is associate editor of the journal Copeia. Dr. Martin's previous books are Amniote Origins Completing the Transition to Land, coedited with Stuart Sumida; and Intertidal Fishes: Life in Two Worlds, coedited with Michael Horn and Michael Chotkowski. After earning undergraduate and graduate degrees at Oklahoma University, she earned a doctorate in biology at University of California, Los Angeles, and completed a postdoctoral Friday Harbor Fellowship at the University of Washington. Dr. Martin received the Environmental Partnership Award from the American Shore and Beach Preservation Association, and the Conservation Achievement Award from the American Fisheries Society. Her award-winning short documentary, Surf, Sand, and Silversides: The California Grunion, has been screened at numerous regional and international film festivals, conferences, universities, and aquariums. She cofounded the Beach Ecology Coalition and the Grunion Greeters in order to work with multiple stakeholders on beaches to balance human recreation with wildlife conservation. Dr. Martin is an advocate for involving the public in scientific research.

Reviews for Beach-Spawning Fishes: Reproduction in an Endangered Ecosystem

Beach-Spawning Fishes covers the wide range of questions one might immediately ask: Is this behavior convergent or limited to a certain family? Which taxa behave like this? What are the habitat requirements? These questions and more are readily answered in the first two chapters of the book. Spawning in the intertidal zone is not limited to the night-time activities of the California Grunion, but to multiple families of teleost fishes. From a general background on overall behavior and evolution of this unique life-history trend, the book then moves from overall patterns of diversification to specific cases of beach-spawning behavior. Just as beach-spawning behavior is diverse across multiple fish families, the reproductive behaviors are highly varied as well as the preferred habitats. In this book, we see beach spawners make use of multiple reproductive strategies with an added twist of doing this all in low or receding waters. Running the gamut from evolution, physiology, life history, and conservation, Beach-Spawning Fishes is an excellent resource for your bookshelf. Just as the many chapters of this book cover diverse questions with regard to beach spawners, the ways in which this resource can be used are diverse as well. Beach-Spawning Fishes has many possible uses for education at the undergraduate, graduate, or professional level. This book is an excellent resource for a professor wanting to bring a textbook-based, in-depth focus on unique spawning strategies in fishes, and it could certainly stand alone as a textbook for a special topics course on marine fish behavior. Beach-Spawning Fishes would be a useful supplement to a reproduction chapter in an ichthyology class or a jumping off point for discussions on diversity and convergent evolution. Anatomy and physiology courses could benefit from the real-life examples of physiological processes discussed. Other portions of this book could be summarized for ecology courses as examples of food webs, ecosystem functionality, or embryonic development. As an extra bonus, this book comes in hardcover, and is also available as an ebook, further lending it to class-based use. -Malorie M. Hayes, Auburn University, in Copeia

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