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A History of International Research Networking

The People who Made it Happen

Howard Davies Beatrice Bressan

$171.95

Hardback

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Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
10 February 2010
The first book written and edited by the people who developed the Internet, this book deals with the history of creating universal protocols and a global data transfer network. The result is THE authoritative source on the topic, providing a vast amount of insider knowledge unavailable elsewhere.

Despite the huge number of contributors, the text is uniform in style and level, and of interest to every scientist and a must-have for all network developers as well as agencies dealing with the Net.
Edited by:   Howard Davies, Beatrice Bressan
Imprint:   Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
Country of Publication:   Germany
Dimensions:   Height: 249mm,  Width: 180mm,  Spine: 26mm
Weight:   858g
ISBN:   9783527327102
ISBN 10:   352732710X
Pages:   345
Publication Date:   10 February 2010
Audience:   Professional and scholarly ,  Undergraduate
Format:   Hardback
Publisher's Status:   Active
Foreword V Preface XI List of Contributors XIII Color Plates XV 1 Early Days 1 1.1 The Starting Point 1 1.1.1 The Data Communications Scene 1 1.2 Protocols and Standards 2 1.2.1 Interim Standards 3 1.2.2 Open Systems Interconnection 3 1.2.3 The Internet Protocols 4 1.3 European Coordination 5 1.3.1 Identifying the Need 5 1.3.2 Preliminary Steps 5 1.3.3 The First European Networkshop 6 1.4 RARE: From Proposal to Reality 11 1.4.1 Laying the Foundations 11 1.4.2 The First Step for COSINE 12 1.4.3 The Second European Networkshop 13 1.4.4 The Birth of RARE 13 1.4.5 The End of the Beginning 14 1.5 EARN, the First International Service in Europe 15 1.5.1 Preparation and Constitution of EARN 17 1.6 IXI 21 2 The Role of Funding Bodies 27 2.1 EUREKA and COSINE 27 2.2 EC and National Governments 31 2.2.1 Impact on the Internal COSINE Debates 33 3 Organized Cooperation 39 3.1 The Activities of RARE 39 3.2 The Gestation of DANTE 41 3.2.1 The Process and the Structure 43 3.2.2 Relationships with Other Bodies 45 3.2.3 Management and Staff 50 3.3 RARE and EARN: the Merger 52 3.4 RARE, EARN and TERENA 56 3.5 DANTE and TERENA 60 3.6 The Future of TERENA 62 3.7 The Value of COSINE 64 3.7.1 The Importance of the Achievements 65 3.7.2 COSINE Epilogue 67 3.8 RIPE and the RIPE NCC 68 4 Different Approaches 73 4.1 HEPnet 73 4.2 DECnet 77 4.3 EUnet 78 4.3.1 Precursors 79 4.3.2 The Network Grows Quickly 83 4.3.3 Cooperation with Emerging European Research and Academic Networks 84 4.4 Ebone 86 4.5 EMPB, European Multi-Protocol Backbone 93 4.6 EuropaNET 102 5 The Interviews 111 5.1 Dai Davies 111 5.2 Kees Neggers and Boudewijn Nederkoorn 118 5.3 Klaus Ullmann 126 6 The Bandwidth Breakthrough 135 6.1 TEN-34 135 6.2 TEN-155 and QUANTUM 142 6.2.1 TEN-155 Takes Shape 144 6.2.2 Intercontinental and External Connectivity 150 6.2.3 The QUANTUM Test Program 151 6.3 Relations with Telecom Operators 152 6.4 Relations with Equipment Suppliers 154 6.4.1 Research and Education Networks as a Market 154 6.4.2 The Research and Education Community as a Technology Incubator 155 6.4.3 Research and Education Networks Need for Interoperability 158 7 Support for Applications 163 7.1 Security and CERTs 163 7.1.1 Establishing a Regional Identity 165 7.1.2 Today.s Activities 168 7.1.3 The Trusted Introducer Service 169 7.2 COSINE Sub-Projects 170 7.3 Grids 175 8 Regional Perspectives 179 8.1 NORDUnet 179 8.1.1 EARN, First Steps in European Collaboration 180 8.1.2 RARE, Harmonizing European Development 181 8.1.3 Ebone, the First Pan-European IP Backbone 182 8.1.4 NSF, the American Connection 183 8.1.5 DANTE, Coordinating European Networking 184 8.1.6 Internet2, towards New Applications 185 8.1.7 The 6NET Project, Testing IPv6 186 8.1.8 GLIF and Lambda Networking, the New Light 187 8.2 CEEC 189 8.2.1 External Support 189 8.2.2 The EC.s PHARE Program 190 8.2.3 National Infrastructures 191 8.2.4 Pan-European Connectivity of the CEEC 192 8.2.5 European Projects 193 8.2.6 The Significance of GEANT 194 8.3 Asia and Pacific 194 8.3.1 Leased Line Connections 195 8.3.2 Trans-Eurasia Information Network 196 8.3.3 Trans-Siberia Link in the 2000s 197 8.3.4 Network Development 197 8.4 South East Europe and the Mediterranean 199 8.4.1 GRNET/Greece and SEEREN 199 8.4.2 ILAN/Israel 201 8.4.3 EUMEDCONNECT 203 8.5 Latin America 204 8.5.1 A Very Brief History of Academic Networking in Latin America 206 8.5.2 The ALICE Project and the RedCLARA Network 207 8.5.3 New and Greatly Improved Research Networks in Latin America 211 8.5.4 Collaborative Networked Applications in Latin America 213 8.5.5 The Future of the Latin American Regional Network 214 8.6 Russia 215 8.6.1 The Origins of the Main Russian Research Networks 215 9 Transatlantic Connections 221 9.1 The ``Welcome Guest'' Period 221 9.2 The Partnership Period 228 9.2.1 Euro-Link 228 9.2.2 GLIF - Global Lambda Integrated Facility 229 9.2.3 TransLight/StarLight 230 9.2.4 GLIF, Grids and the Future 231 10 A European Achievement 235 10.1 GEANT 235 10.2 GEANT2, Creation of the First International Hybrid Network 242 10.2.1 The Gestation Period 242 10.2.2 Complex Procurement 243 10.2.3 Roll-Out and Migration 245 10.2.4 Switched Point-to-Point (p2p) Connections 245 10.2.5 Cost Sharing 247 10.2.6 Cross Border Initiatives 248 10.2.7 Global Connectivity 249 10.2.8 Conclusion 249 10.3 The Impact of Research Networking 250 10.3.1 The Impact on Individuals 250 10.3.2 The Impact on Commerce 251 10.3.3 The Impact on Entertainment 251 10.3.4 The Impact on the Telecommunications Industry 252 10.3.5 The Impact on Education and Research 253 10.3.6 The Impact on the Environment 254 10.3.7 The Political Impact 254 10.3.8 The Impact on Standard Development Method 255 10.3.9 Conclusion 257 Further Reading 259 Appendix A: The People who Made it Happen 261 Appendix B: List of NREN Managers 273 Appendix C: List of Network Names 279 Appendix D: List of Acronyms 283 Appendix E: List of Terms 293 Appendix F: List of Units 303 Index of Names 305 Subject Index 307 Picture Credits 317

Beatrice Bressan is responsible for the outreach of the TOTEM experiment at CERN, the European laboratory for particle physics in Geneva, and is also a science writer. She has more than ten years of experience in the field of scientific and technological communication with extensive experience in journalism, media publishing and public relations. She is a Member of the European Union of Science Journalists' Associations (EUSJA). After her University studies in mathematical physics and science communication, she completed her Ph.D. research and carried out a postdoctoral fellowship on knowledge management and knowledge transfer inside CERN for the Department of Physical Sciences at Helsinki University. She has worked within the Technology Transfer group at CERN, taking care of the production of promotional material, at SIB (Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics) as Head of Communications, and at the Department of Physics at Geneva University, being responsible for their communications. Through her work, she aims to give a better understanding of complex scientific and technological topics for politicians, industrialists and the general public. Howard Davies has a First Class Honours degree in Engineering Science and a D.Phil from the University of Oxford. From 1964 to 1977, he worked in the DD (Data Handling) Division of CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Geneva, initially as a Scientific Programmer, later as a Group Leader and Project Manager for CERNnet. Between 1977 and 1993, he was Director of the Computer Unit at the University of Exeter, responsible not only for the provision of computing services to all academic department within the University but also for the development of network-based services based on the use of JANET and its successors. During this period, he spent six months sabbatical leave in 1986 as a Visiting Computer Specialist at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, California; he acted as (part-time) Director of the Interim COSINE Project Management Unit from 1989 to 1991 and from 1992 to 1994 was Vice-President of RARE. He was appointed Joint General Manager of DANTE in 1993. He retired at the end of 2001.

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