From cities to biofuels, competition for water is accelerating. Climate change threatens to intensify the onset and severity of the water crisis in several regions of the developing world: this is already happening throughout much of Asia, the Mediterranean, southwestern Australia, and the southwestern US. Along with water shortages, unsafe water becomes an increasingly widespread problem, too. As water crises trigger food and health crises, billions may slip further into poverty, leading to greater social and political unrest, new wars, and worsening national security. Out of Water doesn't just illuminate the coming global water crisis: it presents innovative solutions in agriculture, engineering, governance, and beyond, including state-of-the art techniques for integrated water management. This book will help raise the level of debate about water to the highest levels of government, and identify workable reforms and incentives to help water users utilize this crucial resource far more efficiently.
, Samyuktha Varma
Country of Publication:
Professional and scholarly
Acknowledgments xii About the Authors xiv Foreword xvii Preface xxi Chapter 1 Not Another Crisis! 1 Why Is Water Important? 1 Some Water Facts 4 Chapter 2 From Abundance to Scarcity in 25 Years 15 The River Jordan 18 The South Asian Groundwater Phenomenon 25 The Murray-Darling Basin 30 The Colorado River 35 Lessons from History 40 Chapter 3 Causes of Water Scarcity 45 Introduction 45 Blue and Green Water 48 Causes of Water Scarcity 48 Population Growth Impact 50 Dietary Change 52 Biofuel Production 53 Urbanization, Globalization, and Other Factors 55 Climate Change Impact 56 Conclusion 57 Chapter 4 Climate Change and Water 59 What Are the Most Likely Impacts of Climate Change? 61 Climate Change Impacts in Asia 66 Climate Change Impacts in Australia 70 Does Water Have a Role in Mitigating Climate Change? 72 Adapting to Climate Change 73 Conclusion 75 Chapter 5 Agriculture and Water 77 Why Is Irrigation So Important? 92 Virtual Water and Water Footprints 95 How Can We Achieve More Drop Per Drop ? 97 Urban Water Reuse for Agriculture 100 Conclusion 101 Chapter 6 Water, Food, and Poverty 103 The Big Picture--Farming and Poverty 105 Nature and Poverty 107 Irrigation and Poverty--Learning from Asia 109 Groundwater and Poverty 112 Women, Water, and Food 114 Water as Welfare 116 Conclusion 117 Chapter 7 Integrating Water Planning and Management 119 Integrated Water Resources Management 121 Drinking Water and Sanitation in the Developing World 122 What Happens to Our Waste? 126 Recycling and Reuse of Wastewater 128 Multiple Use Water Systems 133 Conclusion 135 Chapter 8 Water Governance for People and the Environment 139 Understanding Water's Unique Properties 142 A New Blueprint 144 Going Local 146 The Farmers Will Do It for Themselves 148 The Participation Principle 150 Recognizing Informal Institutions--The Commons and Community Management 152 Rivers 153 Conclusion 155 Chapter 9 Water Rights and Water Costs 157 Water Allocation Mechanisms 159 South African Water Policy 160 Water Allocation and Pricing in the United States 162 The Murray-Darling Basin, Australia 166 The Situation in Other Countries 169 The Economics of Water 170 Lessons from Complexity? 176 Conclusion 178 Chapter 10 Solving the World's Water Problems 183 1. If You Can't Measure It, You Can't Manage It 185 2. Treasure the Environment 187 3. Reform Water Governance 189 4. Revitalize Agricultural Water Use 192 5. Manage Urban and Industrial Demand 198 6. Empower the Poor and Women in Water Management 201 Conclusion 204 Endnotes 207 Chapter 1 207 Chapter 2 207 Chapter 3 209 Chapter 4 210 Chapter 5 211 Chapter 6 213 Chapter 7 214 Chapter 8 215 Chapter 9 216 Chapter 10 218 Index 221
Colin Chartres, a world-renowned authority on water issues, is Director General of the International Water Management Institute (IWMI). He has 35 years' experience in R&D and policy areas related to water and natural resources, and served as Chief Science Advisor to the Australian National Water Commission. He has published more than 120 papers, book chapters, and reports on soil, water, and agricultural management issues. Samyuktha Varma is Executive Officer to the DG/Communications Specialist at IWMI. She focuses on issues of water, equity, and poverty in developing countries, ensuring that women's voices are heard in the development of water management solutions. A social scientist, her background has led to her work on issues ranging from human rights to urban governance.