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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1914 Excerpt: ...bubbles rise, the gas tends to be concentrated in the volcanic conduit. There the laws of mass-action and of the degradation of energy seem to enforce exothermic reactions of the gaseous constituents among themselves and with the elements of the liquid magma. It is most probable that the heat so generated is very great when compared to the mass of matter participating in the reactions. The conduit is thus a furnace where the potential energy of the accumulating gases is converted into heat energy. Other and perhaps very important sources of heat prolonging the activity of the volcano are: (a) the conversion of the potential energy of liquid components of the magmatic system when tfirown out of chemical equilibrium by the change of pressure and subsequent lowering of temperature; (b) the liberation of latent heat in the slow crystallisation at the walls of the magma chamber; and (c) some degree rf initial superheat in the magma, perhaps of the order of 100 or 20(/ Centigrade. Since the loss of heat at an active vent is chiefly due to radiation at the crater, the continuance of activity is controlled by the efficiency of the mechanism by which the heat of the main chamber and the heat chemically generated in the conduit are transferred to the earth's surface. Field observations at Kilauea and elsewhere, along with a priori deductions, have suggested the general dominance of two-phase convection (or, more generally, convection due to systematic, local changes in gas-concentration) in making this transfer. Juvenile gas is thus conceived to act in a two-fold capacity--as a positive heater (its chemical reactions tending to annul the cooling due to expanson) and as the agent enforcing convection. Its net effect is to keep fluid the top part of the lava column dur...
Reginald Aldworth Daly
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