In this book of brief essays, Singer applies his controversial ways of thinking to issues like climate change, extreme poverty, animals, abortion, euthanasia, human genetic selection, sports doping, the sale of kidneys, the ethics of high-priced art, and ways of increasing happiness. Singer asks whether chimpanzees are people, smoking should be outlawed, or consensual sex between adult siblings should be decriminalised, and he reiterates his case against the idea that all human life is sacred, applying his arguments to some recent cases in the news. In addition, he explores, in an easily accessible form, some of the deepest philosophical questions, such as whether anything really matters and whether the pale blue dot that is our planet has any value. The collection also includes some more personal reflections, like Singer's thoughts on one of his favourite activities, surfing, and an unusual suggestion for starting a family conversation over a holiday feast. Provocative and original, these essays will challenge-and possibly change-your beliefs about a wide range of real-world ethical questions.
In a democracy, should everyone - absolutely everyone - get a vote? Does it really matter if tigers become extinct? Why does murder carry a heavier penalty than attempted murder? If you don't like the socks your grandma gives you for Christmas, should you tell her so? This thought-provoking, interactive, and entertaining introduction to ethics will bring you face to face with some tough moral choices. It presents you with 101 imaginative scenarios--sometimes amusing, sometimes tragic, and sometimes uncomfortably realistic - which will force you to re-examine your most cherished assumptions about right and wrong. Including: -Paul, the torturer with a conscience; -Sally, who can prevent enormous suffering for the price of a latte; -Paul, who is handy with a weapon, but not a killer, surely. 101 Dilemmas for the Armchair Philosopher is packed with problems, puzzles, quizzes, and questions, as well as ethical ideas and insights from history's greatest philosophers.
In a virtuoso display of erudition, thoughtfulness and humour, Terry Eagleton teases apart the concept of hope as it has been (often mistakenly) conceptualised over six millennia, from ancient Greece to today. He distinguishes hope from simple optimism, cheeriness, desire, idealism or adherence to the doctrine of Progress, bringing into focus a standpoint that requires reflection and commitment, arises from clear-sighted rationality, can be cultivated by practice and self-discipline, and which acknowledges but refuses to capitulate to the realities of failure and defeat. Authentic hope is indubitably tragic, yet Eagleton also argues for its radical implications as 'a species of permanent revolution, whose enemy is as much political complacency as metaphysical despair'. It is a means of facing the future without devaluing the moment or obviating the past. Traversing centuries of thought about the many modes of hoping - from Ernst Bloch's monumental work through the Stoics, Aquinas, Marx and Kierkegaard, among others - this penetrating book throws new light on religious faith and political ideology as well as issues such as the problem of evil, the role of language and the meaning of the past. Hope Without Optimism is a brilliantly engaged, impassioned chronicle of human belief and desire in an increasingly uncertain world.
We used to say "seeing is believing"; now, googling is believing. With 24/7 access to nearly all of the world's information at our fingertips, we no longer trek to the library or the encyclopedia shelf in search of answers. We just open our browsers, type in a few keywords and wait for the information to come to us. Now firmly established as a pioneering work of modern philosophy, The Internet of Us has helped revolutionize our understanding of what it means to be human in the digital age. Indeed, demonstrating that knowledge based on reason plays an essential role in society and that there is more to "knowing" than just acquiring information, leading philosopher Michael P. Lynch shows how our digital way of life makes us value some ways of processing information over others, and thus risks distorting the greatest traits of mankind. Charting a path from Plato's cave to Google Glass, the result is a necessary guide on how to navigate the philosophical quagmire that is the "Internet of Things."
Jean-Paul Sartre was one of the twentieth century's most prominent atheists. But his philosophy was informed by theological writers and themes in ways that have not previously been acknowledged. In Sartre and Theology, Kirkpatrick examines Sartre's philosophical formation and rarely discussed early work, demonstrating how, and which, theology shaped Sartre's thinking. She also shows that Sartre's philosophy - especially Being and Nothingness and Existentialism is A Humanism - contributed to several prominent twentieth-century theologies, examining Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, and Liberation theologians's rebuttals and appropriations of Sartre. For philosophers, this work opens up an unmined vein of influence on Sartre's work which illuminates his conceptual divergences from the German phenomenological tradition. And for theologians, it offers insights into a theologically informed atheism which provoked responses from some of the twentieth-century's greatest theologians - an atheism from which we can still learn much today.
Frida Beckman traces Gilles Deleuze's remarkable intellectual journey, mapping the encounters that shaped his life and work. Deleuze the person and philosopher had many faces, and in striving to explore his life the book also considers the events, moods and intensities that were generated by this multiplicity of images. While resisting the idea of `Deleuzians', the book also reviews a post-Deleuzian legacy and the influence of this extraordinary thinker on contemporary philosophy. It follows Deleuze from the salons to which he was invited as a student through his popularity as a young teacher through the development of the rich phases of his philosophical work.
This is not an average text book - it is a lively, accessible, and thought-provoking introduction to philosophy, its history, and its practitioners. Philosophy in 50 Milestone Moments is a comprehensive guide to philosophy from around the world and through the ages. It makes a great work reference, and is a stimulating read as you enjoy concise and straightforward explanations of specific terms and concepts. What makes the book unique, however, is that it is based around a timeline of landmark events. By using a chronological approach, the reader is gently guided from one subject to another while tracking the historical evolution of the discipline. If philosophy is all Greek to you, then this book will make you think again.
Philosophy, Science and Religion for Everyone brings together these great truth-seeking disciplines, and seeks to understand the ways in which they challenge and inform each other. Key topics and their areas of focus include:
* Foundational Issues - why should anyone care about the science-and-religion debate? How do scientific claims relate to the truth? Is evolution compatible with design?
* Faith and Rationality - can faith ever be rational? Are theism and atheism totally opposed? Is God hidden or does God simply not exist?
* Faith and Science - what provides a better explanation for the origin of the universe-science or religion? Faith and physics: can they be reconciled? Does contemporary neuroscience debunk religious belief? Creationism and evolutionary biology - what constitutes science and what constitutes pseudo-science?
* Practical Implications - is fundamentalism just a problem for religious people? What are the ethical implications of the science-and-religion debate? Do logic and religion mix?
his book is designed to be used in conjunction with the free `Philosophy, Science and Religion' MOOC (massive open online course) created by the University of Edinburgh, and hosted by the Coursera platform (www.coursera.org). This book is also highly recommended for anyone looking for a concise overview of this fascinating discipline.
What would stoic ethics be like today if stoicism had survived as a systematic approach to ethical theory, and if it had coped successfully with the challenges of modern philosophy and experimental science?
What would stoic ethics be like today if stoicism had survived as a systematic approach to ethical theory, if it had coped successfully with the challenges of modern philosophy and experimental science? A New Stoicism proposes an answer to that question, offered from within the stoic tradition but without the metaphysical and psychological assumptions that modern philosophy and science have abandoned. Lawrence Becker argues that a secular version of the stoic ethical project, based on contemporary cosmology and developmental psychology, provides the basis for a sophisticated form of ethical naturalism, in which virtually all the hard doctrines of the ancient Stoics can be clearly restated and defended.
Becker argues, in keeping with the ancients, that virtue is one thing, not many; that it, and not happiness, is the proper end of all activity; that it alone is good, all other things being merely rank-ordered relative to each other for the sake of the good; and that virtue is sufficient for happiness. Moreover, he rejects the popular caricature of the stoic as a grave figure, emotionally detached and capable mainly of endurance, resignation, and coping with pain. To the contrary, he holds that while stoic sages are able to endure the extremes of human suffering, they do not have to sacrifice joy to have that ability, and he seeks to turn our attention from the familiar, therapeutic part of stoic moral training to a reconsideration of its theoretical foundations.
The Ethics of Surveillance: An Introduction systematically and comprehensively examines the ethical issues surrounding the concept of surveillance. Addressing important questions such as:
* Is it ever acceptable to spy on one's allies?
* To what degree should the state be able to intrude into its citizens' private lives in the name of security?
* Can corporate espionage ever be justified?
* What are the ethical issues surrounding big data?
* How far should a journalist go in pursuing information?
* Is it reasonable to expect a degree of privacy in public?
* Is it ever justifiable for a parent to read a child's diary?
Featuring case studies throughout this textbook provides a philosophical introduction to an incredibly topical issue studied by students within the fields of applied ethics, ethics of technology, privacy, security studies, politics, journalism and human geography.
The Ethics of Surveillance: An Introduction systematically and comprehensively examines the ethical issues surrounding the concept of surveillance. Addressing important questions such as: * Is it ever acceptable to spy on one's allies? * To what degree should the state be able to intrude into its citizens' private lives in the name of security? * Can corporate espionage ever be justified? * What are the ethical issues surrounding big data? * How far should a journalist go in pursuing information? * Is it reasonable to expect a degree of privacy in public? * Is it ever justifiable for a parent to read a child's diary? Featuring case studies throughout this textbook provides a philosophical introduction to an incredibly topical issue studied by students within the fields of applied ethics, ethics of technology, privacy, security studies, politics, journalism and human geography.
A system can describe what we see (the solar system), operate a computer (Windows 10), or be made on a page (the fourteen engineered lines of a sonnet). In this book, Clifford Siskin shows that system is best understood as a genre - a form that works physically in the world to mediate our efforts to understand it.
Indeed, many Enlightenment authors published works they called system to compete with the essay and the treatise. Drawing on the history of system from Galileo's message from the stars and Newton's system of the world to today's computational universe, Siskin illuminates the role that the genre of system has played in the shaping and reshaping of modern knowledge. Previous engagements with systems have involved making them, using them, or imagining better ones.
Siskin offers an innovative perspective by investigating system itself. He considers the past and present, moving from the system of the world to a world full of systems. He traces the turn to system in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and describes this primary form of Enlightenment as a mediator of political, cultural, and social modernity - pointing to the moment when people began to blame the system for working both too well ( you can't beat the system ) and not well enough (it always seems to break down ).
Throughout, his touchstones are: what system is and how it has changed; how it has mediated knowledge; and how it has worked in the world.