Very high quality reflection seismic data in 2D, 3D and 4D are becoming increasingly available, thanks to the hydrocarbon industry and state-of-the-art seismic acquisition and processing technologies. Students presently study seismic data as early as in their undergraduate courses. Recently published structural geology textbooks (e.g. Fossen 2010) also explain seismic sections, though very briefly. Whist we anticipate that seismic data will become an important new field for the geoscientists in coming years, study material for interpretation of structural aspects from seismic images still does not exist for beginners. For example, there can be fivemethods to identify faults on reflection seismic sections. These are displacement- and changes in dips of marker horizons, linear transparent shadows, reflective fault planes, spatial increase in thickness of sediments and even their combination (Brown 2011; Kodaira et al. 2014; Nem?ok et al. 2013; Misra et al. 2015). Such point-wise description and illustration are not available in structural geology and tectonics textbooks in the context of seismic images. Further, features like hour-glass structures or pull-apart basins , important in petroleum geoscience, have rarely been pointed out in seismic images. Both novices and experts might miss these structures in seismic sections. Furthermore, knowing the common pitfalls in seismic interpretation will help to identify structures better and interpret in regions of poor data quality.
Achyuta Ayan Misra
, Soumyajit Mukherjee
John Wiley & Sons Inc
Country of Publication:
Professional and scholarly
Contributors xiii Preface xvii Acknowledgements xix 1 Introduction to Seismic Data 1 Achyuta Ayan Misra and Ashok Yadav 1.1 Seismic Reflection Method 1 1.2 Seismic Data Acquisition 1 1.2.1 Land Acquisition 3 1.2.2 Marine Acquisition 3 1.2.3 Transition Zones 4 1.3 Processing Seismic Data 5 1.3.1 Noise 5 1.3.2 Gathers 7 1.3.3 Migration and Stacking 7 1.3.4 Resolution of Seismic Data 7 1.4 Seismic Attributes 11 1.4.1 Coherency 12 1.4.2 Dip and Azimuth 12 1.4.3 Curvature 13 References 14 2 Seismic Structural Analysis 15 Achyuta Ayan Misra and Soumyajit Mukherjee 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 Advantages and Limitations of Seismic Data Analyses 16 2.3 Interpreting Faults 17 2.4 Some Common Analyses 21 2.4.1 Geometry of Deformation Structures 21 2.4.2 Crustal Architecture Analyses 21 2.4.3 Progressive Deformation Analysis 21 2.4.4 Strain Analysis 22 2.5 Workflow 22 References 22 Part I Faults 27 3 Normal Faults in the Crawford-Skipper Basin, East Shetland Platform, United Kingdom 29 William Reid and Stefano Patruno References 32 4 Normal Faults Bounding Rift Grabens in Krishna?Godavari Basin, India 35 Achyuta Ayan Misra References 39 5 Bitsminda Anticline: South Kura Foreland Fold and Thrust Belt, Georgia 41 Victor Alania, A. Chabukiani, O. Enukidze, K. Gogrichiani, Z. Mikeladze, and G. Tatishvili References 42 6 Diffraction and Refraction Occurring in a Fault Zone in Corinth Gulf, Greece as Seen by Vertical Seismic Profiling 43 Joachim Place, Charles Naville, and Isabelle Moretti References 45 7 Horst Inversion Within a Decollement Zone During Extension Upper Rhine Graben, France 47 Joachim Place, M. Diraison, Y. Geraud, and Hemin A. Koyi References 49 8 Interpretation of a Vertical Seismic Profile Diffraction Occurring at a Basement-Sedimentary Cover Interface in the Rhine Graben, France 51 Joachim Place and Charles Naville References 53 9 Clara Inversion Anticline, Adriatic Sea, Italy 55 Paolo Pace Acknowledgements 59 References 59 10 Emma Inversion Structure, Adriatic Sea, Italy 61 Paolo Pace Acknowledgements 64 References 64 11 Inversion in the Umiat Basin (Part 1) National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), North Slope, Alaska 65 Paolo Pace Acknowledgements 67 References 68 12 Inversion in the Umiat Basin (Part 2) National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), North Slope, Alaska 69 Paolo Pace Acknowledgements 71 References 72 13 Complex Multiphase Inversion Tectonics in the Southern East Shetland Platform, Offshore United Kingdom 73 Stefano Patruno and William Reid References 75 14 Impact of Activation of a Syn?Depositional Normal Fault on Sedimentation in Greater Mid North Sea High 77 Stefano Patruno and William Reid References 81 15 Imaging Normal Faults Using Dual Sensor Streamers 83 Stefano Patruno and William Reid Acknowledgements 87 References 87 16 Understanding Sinkholes Using Shear Wave Reflection Seismic Imaging in N Germany 89 Charlotte M. Krawczyk and U. Polom References 91 17 Post?Earthquake Subsurface Structure for Reconstruction Planning Using Shear Wave Reflection Seismic Imaging in Banda Aceh, Indonesia 93 Charlotte M. Krawczyk and U. Polom 17.1 Location Negeri 93 17.2 Location Babah Jurong 93 17.3 Location Military Airport 94 17.4 Location Lampasi Engking 95 17.5 Location Iakapeh 96 References 99 18 Shallow Detachment Along a Transform Margin in Cauvery Basin, India 101 Achyuta Ayan Misra and Swagato Dasgupta References 105 19 Normal Faulting Related to Differential Compaction on the 85 DegreesE Ridge in the Bay of Bengal, India 107 Achyuta Ayan Misra References 111 20 Polygonal Fault System in Late Cretaceous Sediments of Cauvery Deepwater Basin, India 113 Swagato Dasgupta and Achyuta Ayan Misra References 115 21 Transfer Zone Geometry in the Offshore Cauvery Basin, India 117 Swagato Dasgupta and Abhimanyu Maitra References 120 22 Synrift Grabens and Inversion in the Cauvery Offshore Basin on the East Coast of India 123 Abhimanyu Maitra References 125 23 Pull?Apart Basin in the Offshore Cauvery-Palar Basin, India 127 Swagato Dasgupta References 129 24 Sedimentary Deformation Features Produced by Differential Compaction and Buoyancy in the Offshore Palar Basin, East Coast of India 131 Swagato Dasgupta References 133 Part II Folds 135 25 Compression Folds and a Strike?Slip Fault in Flowing Evaporites, Red Sea 137 Neil C. Mitchell and Marco Ligi References 139 26 Didigori Syncline and Anticline: Kura Foreland Fold and Thrust Belt, Georgia 141 V. Alania, A. Chabukiani, O. Enukidze, K. Gogrichiani, Z. Mikeladze, and G. Tatishvili References 142 27 Compressional Folds in the Active North Ecuador-South Colombia Margin 143 Achyuta Ayan Misra References 150 28 Fault Propagation Folds in the Active North Ecuador-South Colombia Margin 151 Achyuta Ayan Misra References 153 29 Antiformal Stacks and Hinterland Dipping Duplexes in the North Ecuador-South Colombia Margin 155 Achyuta Ayan Misra 29.1 Antiformal Stack 155 29.2 Hinterland Dipping Duplex 155 References 160 Part III Mobile Substrates 161 30 Compressional Salt?Related Structures in the Western Quele Area, Kuqa Depression, Tarim Basin, China 163 Zhenyun Wu, Hongwei Yin, and Hemin A. Koyi References 165 31 Reactive Salt Diapir, Southern Precaspian Basin, Middle Asia 167 Zhenyun Wu, Hongwei Yin, and Junzhang Zheng References 170 32 Detection of Potential Slide Planes in Onshore Urban Areas Using Shear Wave Reflection Seismics 171 Charlotte M. Krawczyk and U. Polom References 173 33 Detection of Mobile Quick?Clay Layers Using Shear Wave Reflection Seismics 175 Charlotte M. Krawczyk and U. Polom References 176 34 Growth Fault?Thrust Belts with Single Detachment in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, India 177 Achyuta Ayan Misra References 182 35 Growth Fault?Thrust Belts with Multiple Detachments in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, India 183 Achyuta Ayan Misra References 186 36 Growth Fault?Thrust Belts with a Small Translation Zone in the Mumbai Offshore Basin, India 187 Achyuta Ayan Misra References 190 37 Growth Structures and Unconformities in the Upper Evaporites, Red Sea 191 Neil C. Mitchell and Marco Ligi References 193 Part IV Tectonic/Regional Structures 195 38 BABEL4: Crustal Structures of the Precambrian Svecofennian Accretionary Orogen in the Fennoscandian Shield 197 Pekka Heikkinen and Annakaisa Korja References 199 39 BABEL7: Crustal?Scale Extension Associated with the Formation of the Baltic Sea Paleorift, Fennoscandian Shield 201 Annakaisa Korja and Pekka Heikkinen References 203 40 BABEL3&3a: Crustal?Scale Structures of the Precambrian Svecofennian Accretionary Orogen in the Fennoscandian Shield 205 Annakaisa Korja, Pekka Heikkinen, Timo Tiira and Kaisa Nikkila References 208 41 Magma?Poor Rifting in the Indian Eastern Continental Margin 209 Achyuta Ayan Misra References 214 42 The Ratnagiri Fracture Zone: A Paleo Oceanic?Fracture?Zone in the Mumbai?Ratnagiri Offshore Region, West India 215 Achyuta Ayan Misra, Neeraj Sinha, and Soumyajit Mukherjee References 219 43 Normal Faults on the Downgoing Plate in an Arc-Continent Collision at East Timor, N Timor Sea 221 Achyuta Ayan Misra and Abhimanyu Maitra References 228 44 The Gop Rift: A Paleo Slow Spreading Centre, Offshore Gujarat, India 229 Achyuta Ayan Misra, Neeraj Sinha, and Soumyajit Mukherjee References 233 45 Transform Margin in the Cauvery Basin, Indian East Coast Passive Margin 235 Achyuta Ayan Misra and Swagato Dasgupta References 239 46 Proximal and Distal Margin Examples from the Eastern Continental Passive Margin of India 241 M. Nem?ok, C. Welker, S. Sinha, M. Choudhuri, S. Sharma, S. Venkatraman, and N. Sinha Reference 252 47 Distal Margin Examples from the Continental Passive Margin of Gabon 253 M. Nem?ok, C. Welker, S. Sinha, M. Choudhuri, S. Sharma, S. Venkatraman, and N. Sinha Reference 255 48 Pitfalls in Interpretation 257 Achyuta Ayan Misra and Ashok Yadav References 260 Index 263
ACHYUTA AYAN MISRA, Exploration, Reliance Industries Ltd., Reliance Corporate Park, Thane Belapur Road, Ghansoli, Navi Mumbai, India. SOUMYAJIT MUKHERJEE, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.