Abbey's Bookshop Logo
Go to my checkout basket
Login to Abbey's Bookshop
Register with Abbey's Bookshop
Travel
Train: Riding the Rails That Created the Modern World - from the Trans-Siberian to the Southwest Chief

Train: Riding the Rails That Created the Modern World - from the Trans-Siberian to the Southwest Chief

Tom Zoellner

$19.99

In his wide-ranging and entertaining new book, Tom Zoellner travels the globe to tell the story of the sociological and economic impact of the railway technology that transformed the world and could very well change it again. From the frigid trans-Siberian railroad to the antiquated Indian Railways to the Japanese-style bullet trains and the glorious landscape of the Chicago to LA-Southwest Chief route, Zoellner offers a stirring story of this most indispensable form of travel. A masterful narrative history, Train also explores the sleek elegance of railroads.
Walking the Nile

Walking the Nile

Levison Wood

$29.99

His journey is 4,250 miles long. He is walking every step of the way, camping in the wild, foraging for food, fending for himself against multiple dangers. He is passing through rainforest, savannah, swamp, desert and lush delta oasis. He will cross seven, very different countries.

No one has ever made this journey on foot. In this detailed, thoughtful, inspiring and dramatic book, recounting Levison Wood's walk the length of the Nile, he will uncover the history of the Nile, yet through the people he meets and who will help him with his journey, he will come face to face with the great story of a modern Africa emerging out of the past. Exploration and Africa are two of his great passions - they drive him on and motivate his inquisitiveness and resolution not to fail, yet the challenges of the terrain, the climate, the animals, the people and his own psychological resolution will throw at him are immense.

The dangers are very real, but so is the motivation for this ex-army officer. If he can overcome the mental and physical challenges, he will be walking into history...
Flavours of Sydney

Flavours of Sydney

Jonette George

$69.99

In this first edition of the Sydney series, Flavours of Sydney uncovers the cities haunts, nooks and crannies – from the hidden laneway bars to the rooftop fine dining restaurants. Featuring beautiful photography, the history of how the city came to be, recipes, restaurants and bars - all coming together in this exciting new book about the flavours in Sydney’s CBD. Not only is this book your guide to Sydney’s CBD but it’s your at-home recipe guide to Sydney’s dining scene. With recipes from all your favourite restaurants, where head chefs use the local produce that surrounds New South Wales.
100 Places in France Every Woman Should Go

100 Places in France Every Woman Should Go

Marcia DeSanctis ,  Shawnie K. Foy

$24.99

Told in a series of stylish, original essays, 100 Places in France Every Woman Should Go is for the serious Francophile, for the woman dreaming of a trip to Paris, and for those who love crisp stories well-told. Like all great travel writing, this volume goes beyond the guidebook and offers insight not only about where to go but why to go there. Combining advice, memoir and meditations on the glories of traveling through France, this book is the must-have in your carry-on when flying to Paris. Award-winning writer Marcia DeSanctis draws on years of travels and living in France to lead you through vineyards, architectural treasures, fabled gardens and contemplative hikes from Biarritz to Deauville, Antibes to the French Alps. These 100 entries capture art, history, food, fresh air and style and along the way, she tells the stories of fascinating women who changed the country's destiny. Ride a white horse in the Camargue, find Paris's hidden museums, try thalassotherapy in St. Malo, and buy raspberries at Nice's Cour Saleya market. From sexy to literary, spiritual to simply gorgeous, 100 Places in France Every Woman Should Go is an indispensable companion for the smart and curious traveler to France.
50 Places in Rome, Florence and Venice Every Woman Should Go: Includes Budget Tips, Online Resources, & Golden Days

50 Places in Rome, Florence and Venice Every Woman Should Go: Includes Budget Tips, Online Resources, & Golden Days

Susan Van Allen

$21.99

Following the critically acclaimed 100 Places in Italy Every Woman Should Go, Susan Van Allen adds new gems to her selection of the best spots for female travelers in Italy's most popular cities, (Rome, Florence, and Venice), along with enticing Golden Day itineraries to make vacation dreams come true. Like a savvy traveler girlfriend whispering in your ear, she guides readers to masterpieces where women are glorified - from Rome's Pieta to Florence's Birth of Venus, best spots for wine tasting, chocolate, and gelato, artisan shopping experiences to meet leather craftsmen or glass blowers, and places for adventures - from rolling pasta to rowing like a gondolier. Plus, there are fresh, practical tips, giving readers insider's secrets for what to pack, the best places to get their hair styled, and how to bargain for souvenirs. Whatever your mood or budget, whether it's your first or 21st visit to Italy, 50 Places in Rome, Florence, and Venice Every Woman Should Go opens the door to extraordinary experiences that fully immerse travelers in the beautiful, fascinating, and delicious pleasures of the Bel Paese.
Secret New York - Curious Activities

Secret New York - Curious Activities

T. M. Rives

$29.99

Shoot a rifle off Fifth Avenue, track the path of an underground river that flows beneath Washington Square, take a trip within yourself in a sensory deprivation chamber, learn to spot fossils in the walls of buildings or collect your own on city beaches, observe bats on the hunt during a night walk, listen to a Stradivarius in a tiny concert hall created by an obsessed luthier, explore forbidden islands in a kayak, prepare for the end of the world at a survival class in Central Park, speed through the bay on the rail of a racing sailboat, climb giant trees in a botanic garden, go on the beat with a pair of NYPD cops, take a puppet-making class from an expert, watch feeding whales lunge from the deep. A continuation of adventures begun in Secret New York: an Unusual Guide, author T.M. Rives shows you that the town that has everything has more than you ever imagined.
HONG KONG State of Mind: 37 Views of a City That Doesn't Blink

HONG KONG State of Mind: 37 Views of a City That Doesn't Blink

Jason Y. Ng ,  Lee Po Ng

$17.99

Hong Kong is a mixed bag of a city. It is where Mercedes outnumber taxi cabs, partygoers count down to Christmas every December 24, and larger-than-life billboards of fortune tellers and cram school tutors compete with breath-taking skylines. This is a collection of essays by a popular blogger who zeroes in on the citys idiosyncrasies with deadpan precision. At once an outsider looking in and an insider looking out, Ng has created something for everyone: a travel journal for the passing visitor, a users manual for the wide-eyed expat, and an open diary for the native Hong Konger looking for moments of reflection.
In Love in New York: A Traveler's Guide to the Most Romantic Destinations in the Greatest City in the World

In Love in New York: A Traveler's Guide to the Most Romantic Destinations in the Greatest City in the World

Caitlin Leffel ,  Jacob Lehman

$34.95

New York is a city for lovers: In Love in New York guides the reader to the most romantic sights and destinations the city has to offer. Whether you want to watch the sun rise over the East River like Woody and Diane or enjoy a Cary Grant/Deborah Kerr moment at the top of the Empire State Building, there is no greater city than New York for couples in love. The book begins with first impressions, the iconic New York sights that never fail to dazzle: the skyline (and the best places to view it), the most beautiful blocks and neighborhoods, the famous views (rooftops, bridges, riverside parks). Chapters follow on great date ideas, including desti- nation museums and unusual dinner-and-a- movie/theater combinations. For readers ready to commit, the authors detail the best proposal spots; where to go ring shopping; the coolest places to register for gifts; and information about the legal requirements for marrying in the city (gay and straight), including a rundown on the classic City Hall wedding-with the best places to buy flowers and to celebrate afterwards, naturally. There are also ideas for planning honeymoons and anniversaries. Throughout, sidebars offer romantic options such as wonderful bars with fireplaces, the prettiest park benches, great New York literary and film affairs to inspire your visit, and romantic day trips within and near the five boroughs. From champagne on the Peninsula rooftop in midtown to ice skating in Bryant Park, In Love in New York is the perfect gift for any couple dreaming of experiencing the romance of New York.
A Place Apart: Northern Ireland in the 1970s

A Place Apart: Northern Ireland in the 1970s

Dervla Murphy

$29.95

A Place Apart is a remarkable geographical and psychological travelogue that rises above history, politics, theology and economics. Created by a southern Irishwoman, cycling into the mayhem of Northern Ireland in order to try and sort out her own opinions and emotions about this troubled land. She came equipped with her own childhood experiences of murder and Republican martyrdom, but was otherwise unfettered by sectarian loyalties and armed with a delightful curiosity, a fine ear for anecdote, an ability to stand her own at the bar and penetrating intelligence. She travelled extensively through both town and country, frequently finding herself in horrifying situations, and sometimes among people stiff with hate and grief: but equally, she discovered an unquenchable spirit everywhere that refused to die. Other Dervla Murphy titles published by Eland. Original Hardbacks: A Month by the Sea: Encounters in Gaza, The Island that Dared: Journeys in Cuba, Eland Classics: Wheels within Wheels, Full Tilt: From Ireland to India with a Bicycle, In Ethiopia with a Mule, Where the Indus is Young: A Winter in Baltistan, Tibetan Foothold, The Waiting Land: A Spell in Nepal, On a Shoestring to Coorg.
Stamboul Sketches: Encounters in Old Istanbul

Stamboul Sketches: Encounters in Old Istanbul

John Freely

$29.99

Throughout the 1960's John Freely and Hilary Sumner-Boyd explored every alley, cove and monument of their adopted home of Istanbul in between their teaching jobs. They created a legendary guidebook, covering 1,500 years of Byzantine and Ottoman architecture, to a city that was still innocent of tourists. But the passages that were too personal, too capricious, too idiosyncratic, too indulgent of eccentric personalities, too melancholically obsessed with lost monuments, too wrapped up in the love of mid-afternoon banter, too indulgent of musicians, dancers, gypsies, dervish, drunks, beggars, fishermen, poets, fortune-tellers, folk healers, mimics and prostitutes were cut from their scholarly guidebook. Stamboul Sketches is a slim book compiled from these editorial floor off-cuts. Inspired by travelling in the footsteps of Evliya Celebi, the Puck-like Pepys who wrote about 17th century Istanbul, Stamboul Sketches is a beautiful, quirky portrait of a city caught like a bird on the wing, so much changed but so much the same.
Transit of Venus: Travels in the Pacific

Transit of Venus: Travels in the Pacific

Julian Evans

$29.99

The Pacific Ocean calls to mind a world of fabulous kingdoms and noble savages, guilt free sex and gin-clear lagoons, and a perfect idleness fed by lush fruits and fish-rich seas. Ever since Captain Cook first went to Tahiti in 1769 to observe the transit of Venus across the sun, this dream of the Pacific has not lost its force. But Julian Evans's journey through the island archipelagos of the Great Ocean was also informed by a quest into our more modern myths - such as Peacekeeper missiles and nuclear bombs being tested by the US Army. With humour and vivid imagery, honesty and a wickedly sardonic wit, Evans uncovers the reality of these two Pacific dreams: a brave new ocean where the islanders have money and booze, military coups and cold-war politics, atomic explosions and rising sea levels, but where, in the remotest atolls, beyond all our modernity and rationality, the old dream of islands continues to assert itself.
London Style Guide Eat*Sleep*Shop

London Style Guide Eat*Sleep*Shop

Saska Graville

$39.99

Take a tour of the most interesting shops and places in London with this revised and updated style guide.
Insight Guides: Cuba

Insight Guides: Cuba

Insight Guides

$32.95

With its varied natural beauty and troubled history, Cuba is a land of startling contrasts. From historic sites and crumbling architecture to unspoilt beaches and vibrant nightlife, Insight Guide Cuba provides detailed coverage of this fascinating country, while full-colour photography and maps help you navigate with ease. Our detailed Travel Tips give you all the practical information you need to plan your trip, including our selection of the best and most authentic hotels and restaurants.
Lonely Planet Discover Barcelona

Lonely Planet Discover Barcelona

Lonely Planet ,  Regis St. Louis ,  Sally Davies ,  Andy Symington

$34.99

Lonely Planet's Discover Barcelona is your passport to the most relevant, up-to-date advice on what to see and skip, and what hidden discoveries await you. Explore out-of-this-world Gaudi architecture, graze on tapas as you go bar-hopping, or stroll along the carnivalesque La Rambla; all with your trusted travel companion. Discover the best of Barcelona and begin your journey now!

Inside Lonely Planet's Discover Barcelona:

  • Full-colour maps and images throughout
  • Highlights and itineraries help you tailor your trip to your personal needs and interests
  • Insider tips to save time and money and get around like a local, avoiding crowds and trouble spots
  • Essential info at your fingertips - hours of operation, phone numbers, websites, transit tips, prices
  • Honest reviews for all budgets - eating, sleeping, sight-seeing, going out, shopping, hidden gems that most guidebooks miss
  • Cultural insights give you a richer, more rewarding travel experience - history, art, architecture, politics, food, wine, sport
  • Free, convenient pull-out Barcelona map (included in print version), plus over 21 colour maps
  • Covers Barri Gotic, El Raval, La Ribera, Barceloneta, L'Eixample, La Rambla, Montjuic, La Zona Alta, Gracia, El Born and more
Lonely Planet Discover Spain

Lonely Planet Discover Spain

Lonely Planet ,  Brendan Sainsbury ,  Stuart Butler ,  Anthony Ham

$39.99

Lonely Planet's Discover Spain is your passport to the most relevant, up-to-date advice on what to see and skip, and what hidden discoveries await you. Marvel at stunning architecture, enjoy tapas and pintxos, and hike through the Pyrenees; all with your trusted travel companion. Discover the best of Spain and begin your journey now!

Inside Lonely Planet's Discover Spain:

  • Full-colour maps and images throughout
  • Highlights and itineraries help you tailor your trip to your personal needs and interests
  • Insider tips to save time and money and get around like a local, avoiding crowds and trouble spots
  • Essential info at your fingertips - hours of operation, phone numbers, websites, transit tips, prices
  • Honest reviews for all budgets - eating, sleeping, sight-seeing, going out, shopping, hidden gems that most guidebooks miss
  • Cultural insights give you a richer, more rewarding travel experience - history, art, architecture, food, flamenco
  • Free, convenient pull-out Barcelona map (included in print version), plus over 30 colour maps
  • Covers Barcelona, Catalonia, Eastern Spain, Camino de Santiago, Basque Country, Madrid, Seville, Andalucia Hill Towns, Granada, Southern Coast, and more
Lonely Planet Florida

Lonely Planet Florida

Lonely Planet ,  Adam Karlin ,  Jennifer Rasin Denniston ,  Paula Hardy

$34.99

Lonely Planet Florida is your passport to the most relevant, up-to-date advice on what to see and skip, and what hidden discoveries await you. Dance to Caribbean beats in Miami, fulfill your inner child at Walt Disney World, or kayak the Everglades' shallow waterways; all with your trusted travel companion. Get to the heart of Florida and begin your journey now!

Inside Lonely Planet's Florida Travel Guide:

  • Color maps and images throughout
  • Highlights and itineraries help you tailor your trip to your personal needs and interests
  • Insider tips to save time and money and get around like a local, avoiding crowds and trouble spots
  • Essential info at your fingertips - hours of operation, phone numbers, websites, transit tips, prices
  • Honest reviews for all budgets - eating, sleeping, sight-seeing, going out, shopping, hidden gems that most guidebooks miss
  • Cultural insights give you a richer, more rewarding travel experience - history, culture, art, literature, cinema, music, art-deco architecture, cuisine, landscapes, wildlife.
  • Free, convenient pull-out Miami city map (included in print version), plus over 20 color maps
  • Covers Miami, South Beach, Everglades, Florida Keys, Fort Lauderdale, Palm Beach, Orlando, Walt Disney World, Universal Orlando Resort, SeaWorld, Cape Canaveral, Tampa Bay and more
Lonely Planet Hong Kong

Lonely Planet Hong Kong

Lonely Planet ,  Piera Chen ,  Emily Matchar

$29.99

Lonely Planet Hong Kong is your passport to the most relevant, up-to-date advice on what to see and skip, and what hidden discoveries await you. Cruise Victoria Harbour aboard the Star Ferry, ride on the Peak Tram for amazing views, or explore the Mong Kok markets; all with your trusted travel companion. Get to the heart of Hong Kong and begin your journey now!

Inside Lonely Planet's Hong Kong Travel Guide:

  • Full-color maps and images throughout
  • Highlights and itineraries help you tailor your trip to your personal needs and interests
  • Insider tips to save time and money and get around like a local, avoiding crowds and trouble spots
  • Essential info at your fingertips - hours of operation, phone numbers, websites, transit tips, prices
  • Honest reviews for all budgets - eating, sleeping, sight-seeing, going out, shopping, hidden gems that most guidebooks miss
  • Cultural insights give you a richer, more rewarding travel experience - cuisine, history, arts, cinema, architecture, religion
  • Free, convenient pull-out Hong Kong map (included in print version), plus over 40 color maps
  • Covers Hong Kong Island, Aberdeen & the South, Kowloon, New Territories, Outlying Islands, Macau and more
Lonely Planet Miami & the Keys

Lonely Planet Miami & the Keys

Lonely Planet ,  Adam Karlin

$29.99

Lonely Planet Miami & the Keys is your passport to the most relevant, up-to-date advice on what to see and skip, and what hidden discoveries await you. Explore the art-deco streets of South Beach, spot alligators amongst the Everglades' mangroves, or party all night in Key West; all with your trusted travel companion. Get to the heart of Miami & the Keys and begin your journey now!

Inside Lonely Planet's Miami & the Keys Travel Guide:

  • Color maps and images throughout
  • Highlights and itineraries help you tailor your trip to your personal needs and interests
  • Insider tips to save time and money and get around like a local, avoiding crowds and trouble spots
  • Essential info at your fingertips - hours of operation, phone numbers, websites, transit tips, prices
  • Honest reviews for all budgets - eating, sleeping, sight-seeing, going out, shopping, hidden gems that most guidebooks miss
  • Cultural insights give you a richer, more rewarding travel experience - history, multicultural Miami, cuisine, drink, art-deco architecture, environment
  • Free, convenient pull-out Miami map (included in print version), plus over 15 color maps
  • Covers South Beach, Downtown Miami, Wynwood, Design District, Little Haiti, Northern Miami Beach, Coral Gables, Little Havana, Coconut Grove, Key Biscayne, Everglades, Florida Keys, Key West and more
Lonely Planet Sardinia

Lonely Planet Sardinia

Lonely Planet ,  Kerry Christiani ,  Duncan Garwood

$34.99

Lonely Planet Sardinia is your passport to the most relevant, up-to-date advice on what to see and skip, and what hidden discoveries await you. Kayak through the sea grottoes of Golfo di Orosei, seek out secluded coves at Costa Smeralda, or boulder-hop in Europe's Grand Canyon - Gola Su Gorropu; all with your trusted travel companion. Get to the heart of Sardinia and begin your journey now!

Inside Lonely Planet's Sardinia Travel Guide:

  • Colour maps and images throughout
  • Highlights and itineraries help you tailor your trip to your personal needs and interests
  • Insider tips to save time and money and get around like a local, avoiding crowds and trouble spots
  • Essential info at your fingertips - hours of operation, phone numbers, websites, transit tips, prices
  • Honest reviews for all budgets - eating, sleeping, sight-seeing, going out, shopping, hidden gems that most guidebooks miss
  • Cultural insights give you a richer, more rewarding travel experience - history, customs, art, music, literature, politics, cuisine, wine
  • Over 30 maps
  • Covers Cagliari, the Sarrabus, Iglesias, Oristano, Alghero, Olbia, the Costa Smeralda, the Gallura, Nuoro, Orgosolo, Tiscali, Golfo di Orosei, Gola Su Gorropu, Grotta di Nettuno, Bosa, and more
Lonely Planet Sri Lanka

Lonely Planet Sri Lanka

Lonely Planet ,  Ryan Ver Berkmoes ,  Stuart Butler ,  Iain Stewart

$34.99

Lonely Planet Sri Lanka is your passport to the most relevant, up-to-date advice on what to see and skip, and what hidden discoveries await you. Follow in the footsteps of Buddha and modern-day pilgrims to the summit of Adam's Peak, wander the crumbling ruins and lost cities of the cultural triangle in the heart of the island or explore undiscovered beaches on the recently reopened east coast; all with your trusted travel companion. Get to the heart of Sri Lanka and begin your journey now!

Inside Lonely Planet's Sri Lanka Travel Guide:

  • Colour maps and images throughout
  • Highlights and itineraries help you tailor your trip to your personal needs and interests
  • Insider tips to save time and money and get around like a local, avoiding crowds and trouble spots
  • Essential info at your fingertips - hours of operation, phone numbers, websites, transit tips, prices
  • Honest reviews for all budgets - eating, sleeping, sight-seeing, going out, shopping, hidden gems that most guidebooks miss
  • Cultural insights give you a richer, more rewarding travel experience - tea, cuisine, wildlife, history
  • More than 50 maps
  • Covers Colombo, Galle, South, West and East coasts, the hill country, Jaffna, the ancient cities and more
Lonely Planet Paris

Lonely Planet Paris

Lonely Planet ,  Catherine Le Nevez ,  Christopher Pitts ,  Nicola Williams

$29.99

Lonely Planet Paris is your passport to the most relevant, up-to-date advice on what to see and skip, and what hidden discoveries await you. Grab a cafe creme at a Parisian sidewalk cafe, explore the grand Champs-Elysees, shop for haute couture in the city's vintage flea markets or take in the riches of one of the great art repositories of the world; all with your trusted travel companion. Get to the heart of Paris and begin your journey now!

Inside Lonely Planet's Paris Travel Guide:

  • Full-colour maps and images throughout
  • Highlights and itineraries help you tailor your trip to your personal needs and interests
  • Insider tips to save time and money and get around like a local, avoiding crowds and trouble spots
  • Essential info at your fingertips - hours of operation, phone numbers, websites, transit tips, prices
  • Honest reviews for all budgets - eating, sleeping, sight-seeing, going out, shopping, hidden gems that most guidebooks miss
  • Cultural insights give you a richer, more rewarding travel experience - history, art, literature, cinema, music, museums, fashion, architecture, cuisine.
  • Free, convenient pull-out Paris map (included in print version), plus over 48 colour maps
  • Covers Eiffel Tower, Champs-Elysees, Louvre & Les Halles, Montmartre, Le Marais, Menilmontant, Bastille, Latin Quarter, St Germain, Les Invalides, Montparnasse and more
Lonely Planet Pocket Paris

Lonely Planet Pocket Paris

Lonely Planet ,  Catherine Le Nevez

$19.99

This travel guide to Paris enables travellers to travel the way they want to. Information is provided on where to eat, sleep and shop and an itineraries chapter allows the traveller to plan their time effectively.

Blend in with the Parisians among the chestnut groves of Jardin du Luxembourg, ride the funicular up to the white-domed majesty of the Basilique du Sacre-Coeur, or have a romantic rendezvous with French art at the Musee Rodin; all with your trusted travel companion. Get to the heart of the best of Paris and begin your journey now!
Rick Steves Paris 2015

Rick Steves Paris 2015

Rick Steves ,  Gene Openshaw ,  Steve Smith

$22.26

You can count on Rick Steves to tell you what you really need to know when traveling in the City of Light--Paris. With the self-guided tours in this book, you'll explore the grand Champs-Elysees, the eye-popping Eiffel Tower, and the radiant cathedral of Notre-Dame. Learn how to save money and avoid the lines at the Louvre and Orsay Museums. Enjoy the ambience of Parisian neighborhoods, and take a day trip to the glittering palace of Versailles, or to the Champagne-soaked city of Reims. Then grab a cafe creme at a sidewalk cafe and listen to the hum of the city. You'll see why Paris remains at the heart of global culture. Rick's candid, humorous advice will guide you to good-value hotels and restaurants in delightful neighborhoods. You'll learn how to navigate the Paris Metro, and which sights are worth your time and money. More than just reviews and directions, a Rick Steves guidebook is a tour guide in your pocket.
Philip's Complete Road Atlas Europe

Philip's Complete Road Atlas Europe

$24.99

Philip's Complete Road Atlas Europe 2015 gives more for leisure travellers than any comparable product. In addition to the main maps at 1:750,000, the continental road network is shown at three supplementary scales from 1:250,000 to 1:3M, with ultra-clear detailed maps for urban areas. Scenic routes are highlighted on the road maps, with theme parks and World Heritage sites clearly shown. The maps also highlight towns with low-emission zones and show motorway rest/parking areas. In addition, Philip's Complete Road Atlas Europe 2015 features a unique fact-finder that provides key statistics, currency information and recent events for each country. Philip's Complete Road Atlas Europe 2015 includes: Up-to-date driving regulations, including speed limits, for every country in Europe; Listings for ski resorts and top visitor attractions, country by country; 23 pages of route-planning maps which enable journeys of over 800 miles to be planned without turning a page; 175 pages of clear, detailed road maps, with scenic routes highlighted and toll, toll-free and pre-pay motorways all clearly marked; Large-scale approach maps for 31 major cities; 50 city-centre plans marking historic buildings and tourist attractions, as well as car parks, head post offices and other facilities.
           
Your cart does not contain any items.