ABBEY'S CHOICE DECEMBER 2015 -----
This book offers everything you need to know about modern physics, the universe and our place in the world in seven enlightening lessons.
'Here, on the edge of what we know, in contact with the ocean of the unknown, shines the mystery and the beauty of the world. And it's breathtaking.'
These seven short lessons guide us, with simplicity and clarity, through the scientific revolution that shook physics in the twentieth century and still continues to shake us today. In this beautiful and mind-bending introduction to modern physics, Carlo Rovelli explains Einstein's theory of general relativity, quantum mechanics, black holes, the complex architecture of the universe, elementary particles, gravity, and the nature of the mind.
In under eighty pages, readers will understand the most transformative scientific discoveries of the twentieth century and what they mean for us. Not since Richard Feynman's celebrated best-seller Six Easy Pieces has physics been so vividly, intelligently and entertainingly revealed.
For more than 100 years, The New York Times has been in the forefront of science news reporting. These 120 articles from its archives are the very best, covering more than a century of scientific breakthroughs, setbacks, and mysteries. The varied topics range from chemistry to the cosmos, biology to ecology, genetics to artificial intelligence, all curated by the Times' science editor David Corcoran. Big, informative, and wideranging, this journey through the scientific stories of our times is a must-have for all science enthusiasts.
For you to be here today reading this requires a mind-boggling series of lucky breaks, starting with the Big Bang and ending in your own conception. So it's not surprising that we persist in thinking that we're in with a chance, whether we're playing the lottery or working out the likelihood of extra-terrestrial life. In Chance, a (not entirely) random selection of the New Scientist's sharpest minds provide fascinating insights into luck, randomness, risk and probability. From the secrets of coincidence to placing the perfect bet, the science of random number generation to the surprisingly haphazard decisions of criminal juries, it will explore these, and many other, tantalising questions. Following on from the bestselling Nothing and Question Everything, this book will open your eyes to the weird and wonderful world of chance - and help you see when some things, in fact, aren't random at all.
Algorithms increasingly run our lives. They find books, movies, jobs, and dates for us, manage our investments, and discover new drugs. And in the world's top research labs and universities, the race is on to invent the ultimate learning algorithm: one capable of discovering any knowledge from data, and doing anything we want, before we even ask.
Machine learning is the automation of discovery - the scientific method on steroids - that enables intelligent robots and computers to program themselves. No field of science today is more important yet more shrouded in mystery. Pedro Domingos, one of the field's leading lights, lifts the veil for the first time to give us a peek inside the learning machines that power Google, Amazon, and your smartphone. Step by step, he assembles a blueprint for the future universal learner - the Master Algorithm - and discusses what it means for you, and for the future of business, science, and society. If data-ism is today's rising philosophy, this book will be its bible. The quest for universal learning is one of the most significant, fascinating, and revolutionary intellectual developments of all time.
The Master Algorithm is the essential guide for anyone and everyone wanting to understand not just how the revolution will happen, but how to be at its forefront.
A fascinating exploration of the limits of human knowledge of our planet, its history and culture, and the universe beyond, from the author of The Things that Nobody Knows. There are many, many more things that nobody knows. Do animals have a sense of humor? Why do we have five fingers? How long can humans live? What did Jesus do in his youth? Which speech did Lincoln deliver at Gettysburg? Does the appendix have any use? Is there an odd perfect number? In this witty and enlightening follow-up to The Things that Nobody Knows, William Hartston takes us on a guided tour of 501 further gaps in our knowledge of cosmology, mathematics, animal behavior, medical science, music, art, and literature.
Why did Uuq become Fl? Why is the sky blue? Why is the sky black? What is spaghettification? There's a problem with the typical pub quiz. It always features far too much sport, 1980s pop and celebrity gossip - and not nearly enough science. How Many Moons Does the Earth Have? is the ultimate solution. Test your knowledge to the limit with a sizzling collection of brain-stretching, science-based questions in two eight-round quizzes. Turn the page to get the answer immediately - and as each answer page explores the subject in more depth, this the only quiz that's just as entertaining to read from beginning to end as it is to play competitively. Where was the Big Bang? What links the elephant Tusko and Timothy Leary? What is the significance of 6EQUJ5? Science explainer extraordinaire Brian Clegg tells all...
World-leading natural and social scientists shed light on their discoveries and lives in conversation with an award-winning science writer. When acclaimed science writer Stefan Klein asks Nobel Prize - winning chemist Roald Hoffmann what sets scientists apart, Hoffmann says, 'First and foremost, curiosity.'
In this collection of intimate conversations with 19 of the world's best-known scientists, Klein lets us listen in as today's leading minds reveal what they still hope to discover - and how their paradigm-changing work entwines with their lives outside the lab. From the sports car that physicist Steven Weinberg says helped him on his quest for 'the theory of everything' to the jazz musicians who gave psychologist Alison Gopnik new insight into raising children, scientists explain how they find inspiration everywhere.
Hear from: evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins on selfishness; anthropologist Sarah Hrdy on motherhood; primatologist Jane Goodall on animal behaviour; neuroscientist V. S. Ramachandran on consciousness; geographer Jared Diamond on chance in history; And other luminaries!
The Magic of Maths is the maths book you wish you had in school. Using a delightful assortment of examples - from ice cream scoops and poker hands to measuring mountains and making magic squares - this book empowers you to see the beauty, simplicity, and truly magical properties behind those formulas and equations that once left your head spinning. You’ll learn the key ideas of classic areas of mathematics like arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus, but you’ll also have fun fooling around with Fibonacci numbers, investigating infinity, and marveling over mathematical magic tricks that will make you look like a maths genius!
A mathematician who is known throughout the world as the 'mathemagician', Arthur Benjamin mixes mathematics and magic to make the subject fun, attractive, and easy to understand. In The Magic of Maths, Benjamin does more than just teach skills: with a tip of his magic hat, he takes you on as his apprentice to teach you how to appreciate maths the way he does. He motivates you to learn something new about how to solve for x, because there is real pleasure to be found in the solution to a challenging problem or in using numbers to do something useful. But what he really wants you to do is be able to figure out why, for that’s where you’ll find the real beauty, power, and magic of maths.
If you are already someone who likes maths, this book will dazzle and amuse you. If you never particularly liked or understood maths, Benjamin will enlighten you and - with a wave of his magic wand - turn you into a maths lover.
Acclaimed popular-science writer Brian Clegg and popular TV and radio astronomer Rhodri Evans give us a Top Ten list of physicists as the central theme to build an exploration of the most exciting breakthroughs in physics, looking not just at the science, but also the fascinating lives of the scientists themselves.
Whether we are with Curie, patiently sorting through tons of pitchblende to isolate radium or feeling Bohr's frustration as once again Einstein attempts to undermine quantum theory, the combination of science and biography humanizes these great figures of history and makes the Physics itself more accessible. In exploring the way the list has been built the authors also put physics in its place amongst the sciences and show how it combines an exploration of the deepest and most profound questions about life and the universe with practical applications that have transformed our lives.
The book is structured chronologically, allowing readers to follow the development of scientific knowledge over more than 400 years, showing clearly how this key group of individuals has fundamentally altered our understanding of the world around us.
The twentieth century gave us two great theories of physics. The general theory of relativity describes the behaviour of very large things; quantum theory the behaviour of very small things. In this landmark book, John Gribbin - one of the best-known writers of popular science over the past 30 years - presents his own version of the Holy Grail of physics, the search that has been going on for decades to find a unified 'Theory of Everything' that combines these ideas into one mathematical package, a single equation that could be printed on a T-shirt, containing the answer to life, the Universe and everything. With his inimitable mixture of science, history and biography, Gribbin shows how - despite scepticism among many physicists - these two great theories are indeed very compatible, and point to a deep truth about the nature of our existence. The answer lies, intriguingly, with the age of the Universe: 13.8 billion years.
What is space? It isn't a question that most of us normally stop to ask. Space is the venue of physics; it's where things exist, where they move and take shape. Yet over the past few decades, physicists have discovered a phenomenon that operates outside the confines of space and time.
The phenomenon, the ability of one particle to affect another instantly across the vastness of space appears to be almost magical. Einstein grappled with this oddity and couldn't quite resolve it, describing it as spooky action at a distance. But this strange occurrence has direct connections to black holes, particle collisions, and even the workings of gravity. If space isn't what we thought it was, then what is it?
In Spooky Action at a Distance, George Musser sets out to answer that question, offering a provocative exploration of non locality and a celebration of the scientists who are trying to understand it. Musser guides us on an epic journey of scientific discovery into the lives of experimental physicists observing particles acting in tandem, astronomers discovering galaxies that look statistically identical, and cosmologists hoping to unravel the paradoxes surrounding the big bang.
Their conclusions challenge our understanding not only of space and time but of the origins of the universe and their insights are spurring profound technological innovation and suggesting a new grand unified theory of physics.
All the winning and shortlisted images from the 2015 Astronomy Photographer of the Year competition, which is organized by the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. The images are submitted in one of the following categories:
* Earth and Space
* Our Solar System
* Deep Space
* Young Astronomy Photographer of the Year
And can also be entered for one of the special prizes:
* Best Newcomer
* People and Space
* Robotic Scope
Each image is accompanied by caption, photographer, location and technical details. Exhibition Every year the Royal Observatory, Greenwich hosts a free exhibition of the winners of the Astronomy Photographer of the Year competition, showcasing some incredible images of the sky.
Take a tour of the universe with this breathtaking collection of photographs from the archives of NASA. Astonishing images of Earth from above, the phenomena of our solar system, and the celestial bodies of deep space will captivate readers and photography lovers with an interest in science, astronomy, and the great beyond. Each extraordinary photograph from the legendary space agency is paired with explanatory text that contextualises its place in the cosmic ballet of planets, stars, dust, and matter - from Earth's limb to solar flares, the Jellyfish Nebula to Pandora's Cluster. Featuring a preface by Bill Nye, this engaging volume offers up-close views of our remarkable cosmos, and sparks wonder at the marvels of Earth and space.
Proving to be both varied and fascinating, moons are far more common than planets in our Solar System. Our own Moon has had a profound influence on Earth, not only through tidal effects, but even on the behaviour of some marine animals. Many remarkable things have been discovered about the moons of the giant outer planets from Voyager, Galileo, Cassini, and other spacecraft. Scientists have glimpsed volcanic activity on Io, found oceans of water on Titan, and captured photos of icy geysers bursting from Enceladus. It looks likely that microbial life beyond the Earth may be discovered on a moon rather than a planet. In this Very Short Introduction David Rothery introduces the reader to the moons of our Solar System, beginning with the early discoveries of Galileo and others, describing their variety of mostly mythological names, and the early use of Jupiter's moons to establish position at sea and to estimate the speed of light. Rothery discusses the structure, formation, and influence of our Moon, and those of the other planets, and ends with the recent discovery of moons orbiting asteroids, whilst looking forward to the possibility of finding moons of exoplanets in planetary systems far beyond our own.
Written by David Rothery, who is Professor of Planetary Geosciences at the Open University, Geology: A Complete Introduction is designed to give you everything you need to succeed, all in one place. It covers the key areas that students are expected to be confident in, outlining the basics in clear English, and then providing added-value features like a glossary of the essential jargon terms, links to useful websites, and even examples of questions you might be asked in a seminar or exam. The book uses a structure chosen to cover the essentials of most school and university courses on Geology. Topics covered include the Earth's structure, earthquakes, plate tectonics, volcanoes, igneous intrusions, metamorphism, weathering, erosion, deposition, deformation, physical resources, past life and fossils, the history of the Earth, Solar System geology, and geological fieldwork. There are useful appendices of minerals, rock names and geological time.
From a New York Times bestselling author comes a breathtaking journey into the extraordinary world of dolphins. Since the dawn of history, humans have felt a kinship with dolphins, whose playfulness, sociability, and intelligence seem an aquatic mirror of humankind. But dolphins are mysterious: scientists still don't completely understand their sophisticated navigation and communication abilities, or their immensely complicated brains.
In 2010, after her father's death, Susan Casey had a singular experience with a pod of spinner dolphins while swimming off the coast of Maui. It inspired her on a two-year global adventure to explore these remarkable animals and their relationship to humans. Casey examines the work of John Lilly, a scientist whose interest in dolphins led him down some very strange paths; visits a Hawaiian community who believes dolphins are key to enlightenment; travels to Ireland, where 'the world's most loyal animal' has delighted tourists for decades; and explores the ancient Minoans' interdependence on dolphins in Crete.
She finds that dolphins can call themselves by name, recognise their reflections, count, grieve, infer, seduce, form cliques, conduct rescue operations, and even throw tantrums. Yet there is a dark side to our relationship with these beautiful animals. Dolphins are the stars of a global, multibillion-dollar captivity industry - a sinister, lucrative trade in which animals are captured and kept in brutal conditions. Casey's reportage takes her to the trade's harrowing epicentre in the Solomon Islands, and to the Japanese town of Taiji, made infamous by the Oscar-winning documentary The Cove, where she chronicles protests against the annual slaughter and sale of dolphins.
In the tradition of Susan Orlean and Donovan Hohn, Voices in the Ocean is a thrilling, compassionate, imperative, and wonderfully lyrical account of the other intelligent life on the planet.
The more we debate about the catastrophic implications of climate change, the more fossil fuels we continue to burn. How did we get caught up in this mess? In this masterful new history, Malm claims that it all began in Britain with the rise of steam-power. So why did manufacturers turn from traditional fuels, notably water, to steam? Overturning established theories of the transition and offering a radically new view of our warming world, this study shows how steam was adopted as a superior source of power. Two centuries later, the inheritors of that power continue to profit from 'business as usual' as the world heads towards irreversible catastrophe. Malm examines the history of resistance to fossil fuels and offers suggestions for transitioning to alternative sources of power, such as a return to waterpower.
The very best journalism from one of Britain's most admired and outspoken science writers, author of the bestselling Bad Science and Bad Pharma. In 'Bad Science', Ben Goldacre hilariously exposed the tricks that quacks and journalists use to distort science. In 'Bad Pharma', he put the $600 billion global pharmaceutical industry under the microscope. Now the pick of the journalism by one of our wittiiest, most indignant and most fearless commentators on the worlds of medicine and science is collected in one volume.
From the No. 1 bestselling author of What If? - the man who created xkcd and explained the laws of science with cartoons - comes a series of brilliantly simple diagrams ('blueprints' if you want to be complicated about it) that show how important things work: from the nuclear bomb to the biro. It's good to know what the parts of a thing are called, but it's much more interesting to know what they do. Richard Feynman once said that if you can't explain something to a first-year student, you don't really get it.
In Thing Explainer, Randall Munroe takes a quantum leap past this: he explains things using only drawings and a vocabulary of just our 1,000 (or the ten hundred) most common words. Many of the things we use every day - like our food-heating radio boxes ('microwaves'), our very tall roads ('bridges'), and our computer rooms ('datacentres') - are strange to us. So are the other worlds around our sun (the solar system), the big flat rocks we live on (tectonic plates), and even the stuff inside us (cells). Where do these things come from? How do they work? What do they look like if you open them up? And what would happen if we heated them up, cooled them down, pointed them in a different direction, or pressed this button?
In Thing Explainer, Munroe gives us the answers to these questions and many, many more. Funny, interesting, and always understandable, this book is for anyone who has ever wondered how things work, and why.
For those whose memories of learning science at school consist of burning magnesium and playing with iron filings and a magnet, and whose brains shut down as soon as things start to sound 'too technical', I Used to Know That: General Science is here to remind you of everything you've forgotten or should have learned. You may not be studying for an exam any more, but an understanding of basic scientific principles is essential in everyday life, from choosing which vitamins to take to deciding on the best way of heating your home. Written to O Level standard, this accessible and informative guide will fill in any embarrassing gaps in your knowledge, providing you with a solid understanding of biology, chemistry and physics. For those who enjoyed science at school, this is a welcome trip down memory lane. For those who didn't, this book will show you what you've been missing.
Have you ever wondered why ice floats and water is such a freaky liquid? Or why chillies and mustard are both hot but in different ways? Or why microwaves don't cook from the inside out? In this fascinating scientific tour of household objects, The One Show presenter and all-round Science Bloke Marty Jopson has the answer to all of these, and many more, baffling questions about the chemistry and physics of the everyday stuff we use every day.
Just as World War II called an earlier generation to greatness, so the climate crisis is calling today's rising youth to action: to create a better future.
In Unstoppable, Bill Nye crystallizes and expands the message for which he is best known and beloved. That message is that with a combination of optimism and scientific curiosity, all obstacles become opportunities, and the possibilities of our world become limitless. With a scientist's thirst for knowledge and an engineer's vision of what can be, Bill Nye sees today's environmental issues not as insurmountable, depressing problems but as chances for our society to rise to the challenge and create a cleaner, healthier, smarter world. We need not accept that transportation consumes half our energy, and that two-thirds of the energy you put into your car is immediately thrown away out the tailpipe. We need not accept that dangerous emissions are the price we must pay for a vibrant economy and a comfortable life. Above all, we need not accept that we will leave our children a planet that is dirty, overheated, and depleted of resources. As Bill shares his vision, he debunks some of the most persistent myths and misunderstandings about global warming.
When you are done reading, you'll be enlightened and empowered. Chances are, you'll be smiling, too, ready to join Bill and change the world.
In Richard Mabey's characteristically lyrical and informative tone, The Cabaret of Plants explores plant species which have challenged our imaginations, awoken that cliched but real human emotion of wonder, and upturned our ideas about history, science, beauty and belief. Picked from every walk of life, they encompass crops, weeds, medicines, religious gathering-places and a water lily named after a queen. Beginning with pagan cults and creation myths, the cultural significance of plants has burst upwards, sprouting into forms as diverse as the panacea (the cure-all plant ginseng, a single root of which can cost up to $10,000), Newton's apple, the African 'vegetable elephant' or boabab, whose swollen trunks store thousands of litres of water - and the mystical, night-flowering Amazonian cactus, the moonflower. From Ice Age artists, to the Romantic poets, via colonialism and the nineteenth century botanical mania of empire, Mabey concludes his magnum opus with the latest revelations of possible 'plant intelligence' in this extraordinary collection of encounters between plants and people.
In this compelling memoir his first wife, Jane Hawking, relates the inside story of their extraordinary marriage. As Stephen's academic renown soared, his body was collapsing under the assaults of motor neurone disease, and Jane's candid account of trying to balance his 24-hour care with the needs of their growing family will be inspirational to anyone dealing with family illness. The inner-strength of the author, and the self-evident character and achievements of her husband, make for an incredible tale that is always presented with unflinching honesty; the author's candour is no less evident when the marriage finally ends in a high-profile meltdown, with Stephen leaving Jane for one of his nurses, while Jane goes on to marry an old family friend. In this exceptionally open, moving and often funny memoir, Jane Hawking confronts not only the acutely complicated and painful dilemmas of her first marriage, but also the faultlines exposed in a relationship by the pervasive effects of fame and wealth. The result is a book about optimism, love and change that will resonate with readers everywhere.
The pursuit of science by professional scientists every day bears less and less resemblance to the perception of science by the general public. It is not the rule-based, methodical system for accumulating facts that dominates the public view. Rather it is the idiosyncratic, often bumbling search for understanding in mostly uncharted places. It is full of wrong turns, cul-de-sacs, mistaken identities, false findings, errors of fact and judgment-and the occasional remarkable success.
The widespread but distorted view of science as infallible originates in an education system that teaches nothing but facts using very large, very frightening textbooks, and is spread by media that report on discoveries but almost never on process. It is further reinforced by politicians who pay for it and want to use it to determine policy and therefore want it right and, worst of all, sometimes by scientists who learn early on that talking too much about failures and not enough about successes can harm their careers. Failure, then, is a book that seeks to make science more appealing by exposing its faults.
In this sequel to Ignorance, Stuart Firestein shows us that scientific enterprise is riddled with failures, and that this is not only necessary but good. Failure reveals how science got its start, when humans began to use a process - trial and error - as a kind of recipe that includes a hefty dose of failure. It gives the non-scientifically trained public an insider's view of how science is actually done, with the aim of making it accessible, comprehensible, and entertaining.
A fully updated edition of one of the most original accounts of evolution ever written, featuring new fractal diagrams, five new 'tales' and the latest scientific developments.
This is a dazzling, four-billion-year pilgrimage to the origins of life: Richard Dawkins and Yan Wong take us on an exhilarating reverse journey through evolution, from present-day humans back to the microbial beginnings of life. It is a journey happily interrupted by meetings of fellow modern animals (as well as plants, fungi and bacteria) similarly tracing their evolutionary path back through history. As each evolutionary pilgrim tells their tale, Dawkins sheds light on topics such as speciation, sexual selection and extinction.
Written with unparalleled wit, clarity and intelligence; taking in new scientific discoveries of the past decade; and including three new 'tales' and fractal diagrams, The Ancestor's Tale shows us how remarkable we are, how astonishing our history, and how intimate our relationship with the rest of the living world.
In 1992, in a remote mountain range, a team of scientists discovered the remains of an unusual animal with beautiful long horns. It turned out to be a living species new to western science -- a saola, the first large land mammal discovered in 50 years. Rare then and rarer now, no westerner had glimpsed a live saola before Pulitzer Prize finalist and nature writer William deBuys and conservation biologist William Robichaud set off to search for it in the wilds of central Laos. The team endured a punishing trek, up and down whitewater rivers and through mountainous terrain ribboned with the snare lines of armed poachers. In the tradition of Bruce Chatwin, Colin Thubron, and Peter Matthiessen, The Last Unicorn is deBuys's look deep into one of the world's most remote places. As in the pursuit of the unicorn, the journey ultimately becomes a quest for the essence of wildness in nature, and an encounter with beauty.
Light allows us to see everything around us, but humans can only see a sliver of all light, known as the electromagnetic spectrum. Here, Kim Arcand and Megan Watzke present the subject of light as never before. Organized along the order of the electromagnetic spectrum, each chapter focuses on a different type of light. From radio waves, harnessed for telecommunications, to X-rays, which let us peer inside the human body and view areas around black holes in deep space, Arcand and Watzke show us all the important ways light impacts us. An introductory chapter describes what light is and how it behaves, while hundreds of full-color photographs and illustrations demonstrate concepts and make for a stunning book that's a joy to read and browse.
This text provides advanced and state-of the art knowledge in the analysis, design, development, and control of mechatronic systems. It achieves important pedagogical and practical objectives and is useful to both students and practicing professionals in the area of electromechanical systems in general and in the area of mechatronics in particular. It encompasses several branches of engineering including mechanical engineering, electrical and computer engineering, design engineering, and materials engineering. The book also addresses several new developments in mechatronics, particularly concerning micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS).
Birdwatching can be done from your doorstep with Pocket Garden Bird Watch, which has been carefully adapted from the UK edition to ensure it is relevant to the Australian environment. You'll find all the information you need to create a welcoming garden environment for birds, including expert advice on providing food, water and nesting sites in your garden, guidance on the kind of plants to grow to create a bird-friendly environment, tips on observing birds, what to look out for in different seasons and the kind of equipment required, and profiles on the top 60 Australian garden birds. Pocket Garden Bird Watch is the ideal quick reference guide to help you identify birds in your backyard!
Australia has a rich and unique array of animals, including the largest diversity of marsupials on earth. The recent growth in ecotourism has increased the popularity of mammal-spotting, particularly whale and dolphin-watching, but also spotting of perennial tourist favorites such as koalas and kangaroos. For the first time ever, The Complete Guide to Finding the Mammals of Australia advises interested amateurs and professionals where to locate many of Australia's mammals. The book describes Australia's best mammal-watching sites state-by-state. It also includes a complete, annotated taxonomic list with hints on finding each species (or why it won't be easy to see); sections on travel and logistics in Australia; and appendices with hints on finding and photographing mammals.
Now in an updated edition, the best-selling Backyard Insects explores the fascinating secrets and habits of more than one hundred bugs that are common to backyard Australia. Crawling with full-colour, larger-than-life photographs for easy identication, Backyard Insects is an indispensable guidefor nature lovers, gardeners and kids of all ages.
This new title in New Holland's award-winning Green Guides series investigates the ever-popular subject of Australia's trees and shrubs, celebrating the beauty, great diversity and unique evolution of the country's forests.
Nudibranchs, the 'butterflies of the sea', belong to a group that includes bubble shells, sea hares, side-gilled slugs, sap-sucking slugs and sea butterflies (pteropods). This group includes some of the most beautiful, colourful and delicate of all marine creatures. More than 400 species of nudibranchs occur in south-eastern Australia. This guide introduces marine naturalists, divers, biologists and others to the nudibranchs and related molluscs commonly encountered in the Bass Strait region-their identification, biology, and associations with other plants and animals. An introductory pictorial key is included, along with nearly 250 species descriptions accompanied by colour photographs and illustrations to aid recognition. Further references and a glossary are also included.