In 1095 Pope Urban II granted absolution to anyone who would fight to reclaim the Holy Land. With God at their backs, the first Christian crusaders embarked on an unprecedented religious war. While addressing the contribution of flamboyant characters like Saladin and Richard the Lionheart, Malcolm Billings also looks at the experiences of the peasants, knights and fighting monks who took the cross for Christendom and the Holy Warriors of Islam who, after battle on battle, emerged victorious. He analyses the ebb and flow of crusade and counter-crusade and details the shifting structures of government in the Levant, which became the perennial battleground of East and West.
In 1099, when the first Frankish invaders arrived before the walls of Jerusalem, they had carved out a Christian European presence in the Islamic world that endured for centuries, bolstered by subsequent waves of new crusaders and pilgrims. The story of how this group of warriors, driven by faith, greed, and wanderlust, created new Christian-ruled states in parts of the Middle East is one of the best-known in history. Yet it is offers not even half of the story, for it is based almost exclusively on Western sources and overlooks entirely the perspective of the crusaded. How did medieval Muslims perceive what happened?
In The Race for Paradise, Paul M. Cobb offers a new history of the confrontations between Muslims and Franks we now call the "Crusades," one that emphasizes the diversity of Muslim experiences of the European holy war. There is more to the story than Jerusalem, the Templars, Saladin, and the Assassins. Cobb considers the Arab perspective on all shores of the Muslim Mediterranean, from Spain to Syria. In the process, he shows that this is not a straightforward story of warriors and kings clashing in the Holy Land, but a more complicated tale of border-crossers and turncoats; of embassies and merchants; of scholars and spies, all of them seeking to manage a new threat from the barbarian fringes of their ordered world. When seen from the perspective of medieval Muslims, the Crusades emerge as something altogether different from the high-flying rhetoric of the European chronicles: as a cultural encounter to ponder, a diplomatic chess-game to be mastered, a commercial opportunity to be seized, and as so often happened, a political challenge to be exploited by ambitious rulers making canny use of the language ofjihad.
An engrossing synthesis of history and scholarship, The Race for Paradise fills a significant historical gap, considering in a new light the events that distinctively shaped Muslim experiences of Europeans until the close of the Middle Ages.
The violent and predatory society of Dark Age Scandinavia left a unique impact on the history of medieval Europe. From their chill northern fastness, Norse warriors, explorers and merchants raided, traded, and settled across wide areas of Europe, Asia and the North Atlantic from the late 8th to the mid-11th century. THE VIKING CHRONICLES narrates their story focusing on places where key events were played out, from the sack of Lindisfarne in 793 to the murder in Iceland in 1241 of the saga-writer Snorri Sturluson. Such episodes are fascinating in themselves, but also shed crucial light on the nature of Viking activity - its causes, effects, and the reasons for its decline. In 800 the Scandinavians were barbarians in longboats bent on plunder and rapine; by 1200, their homelands were an integral part of Latin Christendom. John Haywood tells, in authoritative but compellingly readable fashion, the extraordinary story of the Viking Age.
The Vikings hold a particular place in the history of the West, both symbolically and in the significant impact they had on Northern Europe. Magnus Magnusson's indispensable study of this great period presents a rounded and fascinating picture of a people who, in modern eyes, would seem to embody striking contradictions. They were undoubtedly pillagers, raiders and terrifying warriors, but they were also great pioneers, artists and traders - a dynamic people, whose skill and daring in their exploration of the world has left an indelible impression a thousand years on.
From the bestselling author of acclaimed biographies of Cicero, Augustus and Hadrian.
Filled with tales of adventure and astounding reversals of fortune, The Rise of Athens celebrates the city-state that transformed the world, from the democratic revolution that marked its beginning, through the city’s political and cultural golden age, to its decline into the ancient equivalent of a modern-day university town.
Anthony Everitt constructs his history with unforgettable portraits of the talented, tricky, ambitious and unscrupulous Athenians who fuelled the city’s rise: Themistocles, the brilliant naval strategist who led the Greeks to a decisive victory over their Persian enemies; Pericles, arguably the greatest Athenian statesman of them all; and the wily Alcibiades, who changed his political allegiance several times during the course of the Peloponnesian War and died in a hail of assassins’ arrows.
Here are riveting you-are-there accounts of the milestone battles that defined the Hellenic world, including Thermopylae, Marathon and Salamis.
Although the history of Athens is less well known than that of other world empires, the city-state’s allure would inspire Alexander the Great, the Romans and even America’s own Founding Fathers. It’s fair to say that the Athenians made possible the world in which we live today.
An unparalleled storyteller, Everitt combines erudite, thoughtful historical analysis with stirring narrative set pieces that capture the colourful, dramatic and exciting world of ancient Greece. In this peerless new work, he breathes vivid life into this most ancient story.
"Everitt writes for the informed and the uninformed general reader alike in a brisk, conversational style with a modern attitude of scepticism and realism." - The Dallas Morning News
"A lively and readable account. Roman history has an uncanny ability to resonate with contemporary events." – Maclean’s
"Elegant, swift and faultless as an introduction to his subject." - The Spectator
"An engrossing history of a relentlessly pugnacious city’s 500-year rise to empire." - Kirkus Reviews
"Fascinating history and a great read." - Chicago Sun-Times
Musquito was an aborigine who was active in the resistance to white settlement in NSW and was exiled to Norfolk Island in 1813. When Norfolk Island residents were moved to VDL he became a well known figure in and around Hobart. He was responsible for organising the Tasmanians against white settlement and was hanged for his part of the murders that happened at Grindstone Bay in 1825.
The ultimate handbook to Sydney's cemeteries. Cemeteries are not simply places for the dead - they are designed for the living. Visiting cemeteriesto admire the headstones and enjoy their parklike spaces was once a Sydney tradition. SydneyCemeteries: A field guide encapsulates the history and heritage of Sydney's public cemeteries, pointing out what's unique or different about each one and listing notable and notorious burials. It also lets you in on a few secrets, like how to decode monument styles and decipher symbols on headstones. Whether your interests lie in history, genealogy, architectural design, birdwatching, heritage roses orjust finding quiet picnic spots, Sydney Cemeteries has something for you!
A richly illustrated expose of development scandals and political corruption in NSW.
Looks close up at the railways and tramways of Sydney; the colourful characters who ran NSW; shifting political factions that delivered their power; the developers who financed Henry Parkes and other government leaders, and the Sydney suburbs laid out to suit their interests; and the dismal planning failures of the late 1870s and 80s that haunt Sydney still.
A meticulous account of late colonial times when NSW was governed to suit developers and greedy politicians, no less than in the 21st century.
The massive transformation of Sydney and its outskirts from then on is startling; the old flaws of the NSW government even more so.
In 1870 a colonial government, on the brink of collapse, made an audacious move. South Australia's squabbling politicians briefly put aside their differences and took the bold decision to run an iron wire to the middle of nowhere and beyond. Stringing the Overland Telegraph Line across the silent heart of the continent was a momentous event in the country's history. It connected Adelaide to a global network of cables and wire: those travelling up and down the track through central Australia were seldom out of earshot of its hum. Alice Springs was its most important repeater station.
Alice Springs: From singing wire to iconic outback town is the result of eight years of meticulous research unravelling the early history of central Australia's first white settlement. It contains information, never previously published, about that little outpost - a significant heritage site - and how an iconic town was born nearby, during a goldrush that made few people rich. It is a tale of the country's heart and some of its most remarkable but little-known characters, and of children torn between two cultures living at the telegraph station after the morse keys stopped clicking in 1932; children under the shadow of the most controversial piece of legislation in Australia's history. Central Australia has a black history.
Alice Springs is no longer the small, outback community romanticised in Nevil Shute's novel A Town like Alice. But its people, black and white, are still living on the line.
Jane is known to history as the Nine Days Queen, although in fact her reign lasted for 13 days.
The human and emotional aspects of her story have often been ignored, although she is remembered as. While this is doubtlessly true, it is only part of the complex jigsaw of her story.
She was a remarkable individual with a charismatic personality who earned the admiration and affection of many. All were impressed by her wit, passion, intelligence and determined spirit.
The recent trend of trying to highlight her achievements and her religious faith has, in fact, further obscured the real Jane, a young religious radical who saw herself as an advocate of the reformed faith, Protestantism, and ultimately became a martyr for it.
Crown of Blood is an important and significant retelling of an often-misunderstood tale. Set at the time of Jane's downfall and following her journey through to her trial and execution, and using a rich abundance of primary source material (some never before published), it paints a vivid picture of Jane's short and turbulent life.
Simon Schama brings Britain to life through its portraits, as seen in the five-part BBC series The Face of Britain and the major National Portrait Gallery exhibition Churchill and his painter locked in a struggle of stares and glares; Gainsborough watching his daughters run after a butterfly; a black Othello in the nineteenth century; the poet-artist Rossetti trying to capture on canvas what he couldn't possess in life; a surgeon-artist making studies of wounded faces brought in from the Battle of the Somme; a naked John Lennon five hours before his death. In the age of the hasty glance and the selfie, Simon Schama has written a tour de force about the long exchange of looks from which British portraits have been made over the centuries: images of the modest and the mighty; of friends and lovers; heroes and working people.
Each of them - the image-maker, the subject, and the rest of us who get to look at them - are brought unforgettably to life. Together they build into a collective picture of Britain, our past and our present, a look into the mirror of our identity at a moment when we are wondering just who we are. Combining his two great passions, British history and art history, for the first time, Schama's extraordinary storytelling reveals the truth behind the nation's most famous portrayals of power, love, fame, the self, and the people. Mesmerising in its breadth and its panache, and beautifully illustrated, with more than 150 images from the National Portrait Gallery, The Face of Britain will change the way we see our past - and ourselves.
The turbulent Tudor age never fails to capture the imagination. But what was it actually like to be a woman during this period? This was a time when death in infancy or during childbirth was rife; when marriage was usually a legal contract, not a matter for love, and the education of women was minimal at best. Yet the Tudor century was also dominated by powerful and characterful women in a way that no era had been before. Elizabeth Norton explores the seven ages of the Tudor woman, from childhood to old age, through the diverging examples of women such as Elizabeth Tudor, Henry VIII's sister who died in infancy; Cecily Burbage, Elizabeth's wet nurse; Mary Howard, widowed but influential at court; Elizabeth Boleyn, mother of a controversial queen; and Elizabeth Barton, a peasant girl who would be lauded as a prophetess. Their stories are interwoven with studies of topics ranging from Tudor toys to contraception to witchcraft, painting a portrait of the lives of queens and serving maids, nuns and harlots, widows and chaperones.
How much do we really know about the place we call 'home'? In this sweeping, timely book, Nicholas Crane tells the story of Britain. The British landscape has been continuously occupied by humans for 12,000 years, from the end of the Ice Age to the twenty-first century. It has been transformed from a European peninsula of glacier and tundra to an island of glittering cities and exquisite countryside. In this geographical journey through time, we discover the ancient relationship between people and place and the deep-rooted tensions between town and countryside. The twin drivers of landscape change - climate and population - have arguably wielded as much influence on our habitat as monarchs and politics. From tsunamis and farming to Roman debacles and industrial cataclysms, from henge to high-rise and hamlet to metropolis, this is a book about change and adaptation. AS Britain lurches from an exploitative past towards a more sustainable future, this is the story of our age.
England, 1454. A kingdom sliding into chaos. The mentally unstable King Henry VI, having struggled for a decade to contain the violent feuding of his magnates, loses his mind. Disgruntled nobles back the regal claims of Richard, Duke of York, great-grandson of Edward III. The stage is set for civil war. The first volume of an enthralling two-part history of the dynastic wars fought between the houses of Lancaster and York, Battle Royal traces the conflict from its roots in the 1440s to the early 1460s – a period marked by the rise and fall of Richard of York, the deposition of Henry VI following the Lancastrian defeat at Towton, and the subsequent seizure of his throne by Richard's son Edward.
Populating this late-medieval saga of ambition, intrigue and bloodshed are such fascinating characters as the vacillating Henry himself, his indefatigable queen Marguerite of Anjou, Richard of York (father of kings but never king himself), his opportunist ally Richard Neville, 'the Kingmaker', and the precociously virile Edward of York. Charting a clear course through the dynastic and factional complexities of fifteenth-century power politics, and offering crisply authoritative analysis of the key battles of the Wars of the Roses, Battle Royal is a compelling and rigorously researched account of England's longest and bloodiest civil war.
Franz Hessel was an observer par excellence of the increasingly hectic metropolis that was Berlin in the late 1920s. In Walking in Berlin, originally published in Germany in 1929, he captures the rhythm of Weimar-era Berlin, recording evidence of the seismic shifts shaking German culture at the time.
Nearly all of the pieces take the form of a walk or outing, focusing either on a theme or part of the city, and many end at a theatre, cinema or club.
Hessel effortlessly weaves historical information into his observations, displaying his extensive knowledge of the city.
Today, many years after the Nazi era and the postwar reconstruction that followed, the areas he visited are all still prominent and interesting. From the Alexanderplatz to Kreuzberg, his record of them has become priceless. Superbly written, and as fresh today as when it first appeared, this is a book to be savoured.
The Pursuit of Power draws on a lifetime of thinking about 19th-century Europe to create an extraordinarily rich, surprising and entertaining panorama of a continent undergoing drastic transformation.
The book aims to reignite the sense of wonder that permeated this remarkable era, as rulers and ruled navigated overwhelming cultural, political and technological changes. It was a time where what was seen as modern soon appeared old-fashioned, where huge cities sprang up in a generation, new European countries were created and where, for the first time, humans could communicate almost instantly over thousands of miles.
In the period bounded by the Battle of Waterloo and the outbreak of World War I, Europe dominated the rest of the world as never before or since. This book breaks new ground by showing how the continent shaped, and was shaped by, its interactions with other parts of the globe.
Richard Evans explores the revolutions, empire-building and wars that marked the 19th century, but this book is about so much more, whether it be illness, serfdom, religion or philosophy.
The Pursuit of Power is a work by an historian at the height of his powers. It is essential reading for anyone trying to understand Europe, then or now.
Not even the twentieth century can compare with the sixteenth century's explosion of female rule
In sixteenth-century Europe, an extraordinary set of women created a unique culture of feminine power that saw them run the continent for decades. Despite often being on opposing sides of power struggles both armed and otherwise, through family ties and patronage they educated and supported each other in a brutal world where the price of failure was disgrace, exile or even death.
Following the passage of power from mother to daughter and mentor to protege, Gristwood reveals the unorthodox practices these women adopted to avoid patriarchal control and assesses the impact they had on shaping the world around them. Epic in scale, this game of queens is a remarkable spectacle of skill and ingenuity, confronting the challenges faced by women in power - many of which still hold relevant today.
The players in this Game of Queens are: Isabella of Castile, Margaret of Austria, Louise of Savoy, Anne de Beaujeu, Katherine of Aragon, Marguerite of Navarre, Anne Boleyn, Catherine de Medici, Mary Tudor, Elizabeth Tudor, Jeanne d'Albret and Mary Stuart.
A Pulitzer Prize winning historian’s provocative reinterpretation of the eight decades surrounding the Civil War (and leading into the twentieth century); the next volume in the Penguin History of the United States, edited by Eric Foner.
In this ambitious story of American imperial conquest and capitalist development, Pulitzer Prize–winning historian Steven Hahn takes on the conventional histories of the nineteenth century and offers a perspective that promises to be as enduring as it is controversial. It begins and ends in Mexico and, throughout, is internationalist in orientation. It challenges the political narrative of “sectionalism,” emphasizing the national footing of slavery and the struggle between the northeast and Mississippi Valley for continental supremacy. It places the Civil War in the context of many domestic rebellions against state authority, including those of Native Americans.
It fully incorporates the trans-Mississippi west, suggesting the importance of the Pacific to the imperial vision of political leaders and of the west as a proving ground for later imperial projects overseas. It reconfigures the history of capitalism, insisting on the centrality of state formation and slave emancipation to its consolidation. And it identifies a sweeping era of “reconstructions” in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that simultaneously laid the foundations for corporate liberalism and social democracy.
The era from 1830 to 1910 witnessed massive transformations in how people lived, worked, thought about themselves, and struggled to thrive. It also witnessed the birth of economic and political institutions that still shape our world. From an agricultural society with a weak central government, the United States became an urban and industrial society in which government assumed a greater and greater role in the framing of social and economic life. As the book ends, the United States, now a global economic and political power, encounters massive warfare between imperial powers in Europe and a massive revolution on its southern border? the remarkable Mexican Revolution?which together brought the nineteenth century to a close while marking the important themes of the twentieth.
In 1932, as her husband assumed the presidency, Eleanor Roosevelt entered the claustrophobic, duty-bound existence of the First Lady with dread. A lifeline came to her in the form of a feisty campaign reporter for the Associated Press: Lorena Hickok. Over the next 30 years, until Eleanor's death, the two women carried on an extraordinary relationship. They were, at different points, lovers, confidantes, professional advisors and caring friends. This is their story, told with warmth and charm. An important and utterly fascinating book.
This is the story of an accidental king and a court out of control. When renowned journalist Mikhail Zygar began conducting exclusive interviews with members of Vladimir Putin’s inner circle, he uncovered a shocking slew of inconsistencies, reinterpretations, and confusion. Over time, their firsthand accounts mired in egos and excuses comprised a new image of Vladimir Putin as a weary leader controlled by the many men who advise and deceive him. Through unprecedented portraits of key political figures from Kremlin Chief of Staff Alexander Voloshin to Deputy Prime Minister Igro Shavalov Zygar reveals how the Kremlin’s decisions have been nothing more than tactical responses to external events, devoid of logic or objective.
And in their failed attempts to defend their actions, Putin’s men have invented implacable enemies of the state and launched an imaginary war. A bestseller in Russian, All the Kremlin’s Men is both a shocking reconstruction of Putin’s tumultuous reign and an exposé of the manipulation and myopia of his closest circle.
"The Roaring Twenties" is the only decade in American history with a widely applied nickname, and our collective fascination with this era continues. But how did this surge of innovation and cultural milestones emerge out of the ashes of The Great War?
No one has yet written a book about the decade's beginning. Acclaimed author Eric Burns investigates the year of 1920, which was not only a crucial twelve-month period of its own, but one that foretold the future, foreshadowing the rest of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st, whether it was Sacco and Vanzetti or the stock market crash that brought this era to a close. Burns sets the record straight about this most misunderstood and iconic of periods. Despite being the first full year of armistice, 1920 was not, in fact, a peaceful time-it contained the greatest act of terrorism in American history to date. And while 1920 is thought of as starting a prosperous era, for most people, life had never been more unaffordable.
Meanwhile, African Americans were putting their stamp on culture and though people today imagine the frivolous image of the flapper dancing the night away, the truth was that a new kind of power had been bestowed on women, and it had nothing to do with the dance floor...From prohibition to immigration, the birth of jazz, the rise of expatriate literature, and the original Ponzi scheme, 1920 was truly a year like no other.
Many of the heroes of World War II are well-known, larger-than-life figures. This book is a tribute to the lesser-known but equally amazing individuals - some working secretly behind the scenes on the home front and others behind enemy lines - who made just as significant a contribution to the wartime story. It sheds new and timely light on more than 50 of the often unsung heroes and heroines of the world's most destructive war...Secret Heroes of World War II profiles wartime protagonists across four areas: backroom heroes, espionage heroes, resistance heroes, and civilian heroes. The cast of characters is a fascinating one, and together they make for a gripping story, which is vividly illustrated and authoritatively told. Packed full from start to finish with extraordinary tales and daring exploits, it is essential, absorbing reading and a must- have reference for every World War II buff.
Everyone knows the old saying "necessity is the mother of invention," but if you do a paternity test on many of the modern world's most important ideas or institutions, you will find, invariably, that leisure and play were involved in the conception as well.
Most history books don't concern themselves with delight. History is the serious business of war, treaties, governments and monarchs. This is a different kind of history book. Steven Johnson argues that if you want to understand how we got to now, you have to understand pleasure and play. A staggering amount of the landscape of modern life is populated by environments and technology designed to entertain and delight us. Here history of popular entertainment, arguing that the pursuit of novelty and wonder is a powerful driver of world-shaping technological change. Throughout history, he locates the cutting edge of innovation wherever people are working the hardest to keep themselves and others amused.
He introduces us to the colorful innovators of leisure: the explorers, proprietors, showmen, and artists who changed the trajectory of history with their luxurious wares, exotic meals, taverns, gambling tables, and magic shows.
From a stunning villa on sunny Capri with Ali Smith to an unlikely temple in the heart of Copenhagen with Alan Hollinghurst, Treasure Palaces brings together over twenty of the world's greatest writers to give their own personal tours of the museums that have awed, haunted and inspired them. Join Andrew Motion as he muses on writerly methods in the British Library, or Matthew Sweet at the hands-on joy of the ABBA museum. Julian Barnes meditates on Jean Sibelius's music, as well as the composer's apple corer, while visiting his home in Helsinki. Jacqueline Wilson encounters the dolls of Le Musee de la Poupee, Tim Winton remembers his first bare-foot encounter with the National Gallery of Victoria, and Aminatta Forna ponders love tokens in The Museum of Broken Relationships. From mausoleums to massive galleries, from London and New York to Kabul and Zagreb, Treasure Palaces explores some of the world's greatest - and sometimes surprising - museums. The result is a collection of moving, lyrical essays that speak to the enduring power of museums in our cultural life, and will leave you longing to revisit your favourite treasure palace or looking for a new one to explore.
The Pyramids on the Giza Plateau represent perhaps the most famous archaeological site in the world, capturing on tomb walls frozen moments from almost every aspect of life in ancient Egypt. This book, by one of the foremost experts on the history of Giza, explores new approaches to 'cataloging'? the site, highlighting efforts at the Museum of Fine Arts Boston and Harvard University.
The site experienced its first 'golden age'? as the burial place of three pharaohs of the Egyptian Old Kingdom (Dynasty 4, ca. 2640'Â?2510 BCE). A second golden age came almost five millennia later, when the first modern excavators applied their newly devised archaeological craft to the Giza Plateau. Now, with the advent of many new technologies in the twenty-first century, the Giza Necropolis is available in two, three, and even four dimensions. Children and specialized scholars alike may study the material culture of this ancient civilization from afar, often with greater access than could be achieved in person. However, these new approaches do raise questions: Does 3-D modeling and animation truly improve scholarly comprehension and interpretation? Can interacting with animations still be called scholarship? Where is the border between academic knowledge and mere entertainment?
Through specific case studies and an in-depth history of this important project, Peter Der Manuelian provides an excellent model for other digital visualization initiatives. He also offers more general philosophical reflection on the nature of visualization in archaeology and speculates about emerging technologies and how they may be useful in the future.
The first volume of Steven Runciman's classic, hugely influential trilogy on the history of the Crusades 'On a February day in the year AD 638 the Caliph Omar entered Jerusalem, riding upon a white camel' An enthralling work of grand historical narrative, Steven Runciman's A History of the Crusades overturned the traditional view of the Crusades as a romantic Christian adventure, and instead shifted the focus of the story to the East. With verve and drama, volume one of Runciman's trilogy tells the story of the First Crusade - from its unlikely beginnings in pilgrimage to the horrors of the siege of Jerusalem and the carving out of new territory on the edge of the eastern Mediterranean. 'Without question one of the major feats of contemporary historical writing' The New York Times 'The historian whose magisterial works transformed our understanding of Byzantium, the medieval church and the crusades' Guardian
Comprehensive account of the Viking art of war, weapons and the history of their conquests
'Vikings at War' presents a sumptuous depiction of how the Vikings waged war; their weapons technology, offensive and defensive warfare, military traditions and tactics, their fortifications, ships and command structure. It also portrays the Viking raids and conquest campaigns that brought the Vikings to virtually every corner of Europe and even to America. Viking ships landed on almost every shore in the Western world during the 350 years that followed the introduction of the sail into the region, from the 9th to the 11th century. Viking ravages united the Spanish kingdoms and stopped Charlemagne and the Franks' advance in Europe.
Wherever Viking ships roamed, enormous suffering followed in their wake, but the encounter between cultures changed both European and Nordic societies. Employing unorthodox and unpredictable strategies, which were hard for more organized forces to respond to, the most crucial element of the Viking's success was their basic strategy of evading the enemy by arriving by sea, then attacking quickly and with great force before withdrawing quickly. The warrior class dominated in a militarized society. Honour was everything, and breaking promises and ruining one's posthumous reputation were considered worse than death itself. If a man offended another man's honour, the only way out was blood revenge.
Never before have the Viking art of war, weapons and the history of their conquests been presented together in such detail. With over 380 colour illustrations including beautiful reconstruction drawings, maps, cross-section drawings of ships, line-drawings of fortifications, battle plan reconstructions and photos of surviving artefacts including weapons and jewellery, Vikings at War provides a vivid account of one of Europe's most exciting epochs. Vikings at War was awarded the Norwegian literary prize 'Saga Prize' in 2012; currently in its fourth printing in Norwegian, this translation makes it available for the first time in English.
In ancient Egypt, one of the primary roles of the king was to maintain order and destroy chaos. Since the beginning of Egyptian history, images of foreigners were used as symbols of chaos and thus shown as captives being bound and trampled under the king's feet. The early 18th dynasty (1550-1372 BCE) was the height of international trade, diplomacy and Egyptian imperial expansion. During this time new images of foreigners bearing tribute became popular in the tombs of the necropolis at Thebes, the burial place of the Egyptian elite. This volume analyses the new presentation of foreigners in these tombs. Far from being chaotic, they are shown in an orderly fashion, carrying tribute that underscores the wealth and prestige of the tomb owner. This orderliness reflects the ability of the Egyptian state to impose order on foreign lands, but also crucially symbolises the tomb owner's ability to overcome the chaos of death and achieve a successful afterlife. Illustrated with colour plates and black-and-white images, this new volume is an important and original study of the significance of these images for the tomb owner and the functioning of the funerary cult.
In Castle Builders, Malcolm Hislop looks at the hugely popular subject of castles from the unusual perspective of design and construction. In this general introduction to the subject, we discover something of the personalities behind their creation - the architects and craftsmen - and, furthermore, the techniques they employed, and how style and technology was disseminated. Castle Builders takes both a thematic and a chronological approach to the design and construction of castles, providing the reader with clear lines of development. Themes include earth, timber and stone construction techniques, the evolution of the great tower, the development of military engineering, the progression of domestic accommodation, and the degree to which aesthetics contributed to castle design.
An exciting, readable new account of the Alesia campaign, incorporating the latest research, to illuminate the tactics of both Caesar and the Celts, and explore the momentous events of 52 BC. The Battle for Alesia was a decisive moment in world history. It determined whether Rome would finally conquer Gaul or whether Celtic chieftain Vercingetorix would throw off the yoke and consequently whether a number of independent Celtic tribal kingdoms could resist the might of Rome. Failure would have been a total defeat for Julius Caesar, not just in Gaul but in the Senate.
His career would have been over, his enemies would have pulled him down, civil war would have ensued, no dictatorship, no liaison with Cleopatra. Rome would not have become an empire beyond the Mediterranean. European, and therefore world history might have been a very different story. Caesar's campaign of 52 BC frequently hung in the balance. Vercingetorix was a far more formidable opponent than any encountered in Gaul; bold charismatic and imbued with strategic insight of the highest order. The Romans were caught totally off-guard and it seemed all too likely their grip on Gaul, which Caesar had imagined secure, would be prised free.
The Siege of Alesia itself was one of the most astonishing military undertakings of all times. Caesar's interior siege lines stretched for 18 kilometres and were surrounded by an outward facing line three kilometres longer, complete with palisades, towers, ditches, minefields and outposts. This work was completed in less than three weeks. Vercingetorix's refuge proved a trap and, despite an energetic defence and the arrival of a huge relief army, there was to be no escape. Caesar's Greatest Victory fully reveals both sides of the conflict, to explore in depth the personalities involved and to examine the legacy of the campaign which still resonates today.
The arms, equipment, tactics and fighting styles of Roman and Celtic armies are explained, as well as the charisma and leadership of Caesar and Vercingetorix and the command and control structures of both sides. Using new evidence from archaeology, the authors construct a fresh account of not just the siege itself but also the Alesia campaign and place it into the wider context of the history of warfare. This is Roman history at its most exciting, featuring events still talked about today.
Noongar Bush Medicine provides for the first time a comprehensive information on the the medicinal plants that were used by Aboriginal people of the south-west of Western Australia before European settlement. The book is a guide to how to use plants for alternative treatments and protection from common ailments.
"Many books have been written about the Yolngu people of Arnhem Land, Australia. This one is very different. It speaks about the real situation that we face every day, a reality that is hard for people of another culture to imagine." - Rev. Dr. Djiniyini Gondarra OAM, Yolngu Clan Elder
Why Warriors Lie Down and Die is essential reading for anyone interested in Indigenous peoples.
It offers deep insights for those who want a greater understanding of the issues involved in achieving true reconciliation, and provides hope and new direction for those searching for the answers as to why "the problems" seems to persist in Aboriginal communities.
In Arnhem Land, as in Indigenous communities across Australia, the situation is dire. Indigenous health in Australia is now so bad that 45% of Aboriginal men and 34% of women die before the age of 45. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are also massively over-represented in the criminal justice system. Western Australia incarcerates the Aboriginal peoples of its State at 9 times the rate of Apartheid South Africa.
Why Warriors Lie Down and Die provides a fresh analysis of this crisis and offers examples of how Indigenous people can once again take control of their own lives.
Finding the real causes requires the reader to look at it from the other side of the cultural / language divide - the side where the Yolngu people live. The book Why Warriors Lie Down and Die takes us to that side.
Told using a blend of critical and exploratory thinking, deep understanding of Yolngu culture, personal experience and powerful story-telling, Why Warriors is used by universities and schools across the country. This is a book for every Australian and is considered by many to be the essential handbook for people working in cross-cultural environments with Aboriginal peoples.
A groundbreaking presentation, in a revised edition, of Indigenous Australian storytelling as it actually sounds; these stories provide a fascinating picture of the life of the people of the west Kimberley after colonisation. Paddy Roe was a legendary figure in the revival and maintenance of law and culture in the Broome area in the mid-twentieth century. In this book he continues and revitalises one of the great literary traditions of Australia. Stephen Muecke is a leading Australian academic whose work has encompassed a number of disciplines in the humanities.
With Paddy Roe, Muecke is co-writer of the prize-winning Reading the Country.
Much of Australia’s military history literature focuses on battles and the way generals plan and prosecute an action or campaign. But what do generals do when they are not fighting battles? The Battles Before examines the role of senior leaders in preparing an army for war — fighting bureaucratic battles, mobilising forces for operations, or preparing for a future that is impossible to anticipate. The five cases examined in this book focus on strategic leadership and describe how major organisations grapple with political, strategic, economic and cultural change over time.
The first three case studies analyse a series of pivotal moments in the history of the Australian Army: the dramatic downsizing that followed the Vietnam War, the seminal 1985 Dibb Review, and the build-up to the East Timor intervention in 1999. Further cases describe planning within a large organisation, particularly the way senior leaders grapple with the demands of multiple operations while facing significant impetus for force modernisation. The final chapter focuses on the crucial role of the Army’s leadership in developing the next generation of leaders. The book concludes with a series of insights into the study of command in peacetime and its relevance to wartime command, particularly given the challenges that face peacetime commanders who operate within considerable constraints.
The Battles Before uses recently declassified documents and interviews with key participants in a meticulous examination of a 30-year period characterised by profound and far-reaching change. This was a period that would reshape the Australian Army.
The history of one of Australia's most iconic urban precincts, from bustling colonial thoroughfare to imposing address for global corporations and gathering place for civic events.
Martin Place is one of Sydney's iconic urban places. Since the 1890s it has fulfilled a vital role as a significant public space at the centre of Australia's most populous city; in the heart of the central business district, its powerful corporate presence now defines a globally connected city.
It is a place of varied moods and attributes: vista and fine relief, boldness and intimacy, new and old, repose and dynamism. From the beginning, its physical form has framed a people place, the character of which is ever-changing through everyday use and activity as well as moments of commemoration, celebration and protest.
This collection captures Martin Place from all angles-its architectural and social history, its changing landscape, and its various economic and cultural functions-along with the people and organisations that have made it their own.
'This book describes the history of the creation and evolution of Martin Place as a vital part of our civic life - in times of war, at times of celebration and as a heart of our city's banking and finance industry. The ever-unfolding changes to the fabric of Martin Place and the imposing and stately buildings that flank it are a testament to how our constantly changing city is ever-evolving to adapt to and to grasp the potential of an ever-changing future.' - Lucy Hughes Turnbull AO
Steven Walker is a retired F111 pilot who restored a coaching inn at Oatlands, studied for a PhD and wrote the most entertaining and informative history of Tasmania more or less all at once. The stage-coach was major 19thC infrastructure and its development is the story of communication, growth and entrepreneurial competition. Stage-coaches were targets for bush rangers, run by monopolists, operated through the night and required thousands of horses and tonnes of feed. The first case of road rage in Tasmania is detailed here, and three of the successful coach operators were women. This is not only an economic history it is great fun and full of great Tasmanian characters.
'It's a treasure trove. It's previously unknown, candid images of our troops just out of the line. Men with the fear and experiences of battle written on their faces.' General Sir Peter Cosgrove
Investigative journalist Ross Coulthart, joint winner of the Prime Minister's Prize for History 2015, brings together stunning images of Western Front diggers and the amazing stories behind them. This fully revised and expanded edition offers a wealth of fresh information including more soldiers newly identified with the aid of their families.
A trove of portraits taken in the tiny French town of Vignacourt just behind the front lines was found a century later in an ancient metal chest in a French farmhouse. The collection of glass plates has been hailed as one of the most important First World War discoveries ever made. Haunting images show diggers enjoying a brief respite from the horror of the trenches: having their portraits taken for a lark, for a keepsake or to send to loved ones. For all too many, this would be their only memorial, and to gaze into the eyes of these men is to meet a lost generation.
'These stunning black and white photographs stand as mute, yet eloquent, witness to the courage of soldiers and the horror of war ...Remarkably informative, beautifully illustrated and thoroughly researched ...' Ross Fitzgerald, Sydney Morning Herald
England, 1462. The Yorkist Edward IV has been king for 3 years since his victory at Towton. The former Lancastrian king Henry VI languishes in the Tower. But Edward will soon alienate his backers by favouring the family of his ambitious wife, Elizabeth Woodville. And he will fall out with his chief supporter, Warwick 'the Kingmaker', with dire consequences. Blood Royal is the second part of a 2-volume history of the dynastic wars fought between the houses of Lancaster and York for the English throne from 1450 until 1485. Hugh Bicheno tells the story of the Wars of the Roses as an enthralling, character-driven saga of interwoven families, narrating each chapter from the point of view of a key player in the wider drama. Volume 2 describes three Lancastrian attempts to overthrow the Yorkists, and ends with the death of Edward's successor Richard III at Bosworth in 1485, and the accession of Henry VII and the Tudor dynasty.
A stunning new edition of the earliest atlas of the British Isles. Britain's Tudor Maps: County by County reproduces the maps of John Speed's 1611 collection The Theatre of Great Britaine in large, easy-to-read format for the first time. Compiled from 1596, these richly detailed maps show each county of Great Britain individually and as they existed at the time, complete with a wealth of heraldic decoration, illustrations and royal portraits. With an introduction by the bestselling author Nigel Nicholson, each map is presented alongside a fascinating commentary by Alasdair Hawkyard, elaborating on both the topographical features and the social conditions of each county at the time, enabling an examination of how the physical and social landscape has been transformed over time.
In January 1547 Henry VIII lay dying. His heir was just 9 years old and all England waited expectantly to see who would hold the reins of power until Edward VI came of age. Within days of Henry's death, the privy council overturned the terms of his will and Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset was named Lord Protector. It was a decision that the men in power would come to regret. For nearly three years, Somerset was 'king in all but name', the most powerful man in England. But though he was a skilled soldier and leader on the battlefield, Somerset's political skills were not so well-honed. His single-mindedness and his overbearing attitude towards the privy Councillors alienated the very men whose support he most needed. When they lost patience with him, the scene was set for conflict. Despite energetic opposition, his religious reform was his greatest success and the establishment of the Book of Common Prayer, which laid the foundation of the Anglican Church, was to be his most enduring achievement. However, his efforts to lessen the authoritarian rule imposed by Henry VIII and to improve the well-being of the common folk led to widespread rebellion, and as his attempt to subdue the Scots failed, England faced war with France. To the people Edward Seymour was the 'Good Duke'. To his fellow Councillors he was a traitor. This is a story of Tudor ambition, power and the ultimate price of failure.
Every child has heard of Guy Fawkes and will most likely have watched a 'guy' being burnt on a bonfire and fireworks lighting up the night sky on Bonfire Night. This book answers the questions of history that lie behind the celebrations of 5 November. Who was Guy Fawkes and how did he come to be below the chamber of the House of Lords in the first hour of 5 November 1605? What desperation drove those involved to plan a horrific massacre of the Protestant royal family and government? Alan Haynes's probing analysis offers the clearest, most balanced view yet of often conflicting evidence, as he disentangles the threads of disharmony, intrigue, betrayal, terror and retribution. In this new, updated edition he gathers together startling evidence to uncover the depth and extent of the plot, and how close the plotters came to de-stabilising the government in one of the most notorious terrorist plots of British history. This enthralling book will grip the general reader, while the scope of its detailed research will require historians of the period to consider again the commanding importance of the plot throughout the seventeenth century.
The Lost World of British Communism is a vivid account of the Communist Party of Great Britain. Raphael Samuel, one of post-war Britain's most notable historians, draws on novels of the period and childhood recollections of London's East End, as well as memoirs and Party archives, to evoke the world of British Communism in the 1940s. Samuel conjures up the era when the movement was at the height of its political and theoretical power, brilliantly bringing to life an age in which the Communist Party enjoyed huge prestige as a bulwark for the struggles against fascism and colonialism.
St Ermin's Hotel has been at the centre of British intelligence since the 1930s, when it was known to MI6 as 'The Works Canteen'. Intelligence officers such as Ian Fleming and Noel Coward were to be found in the hotel's Caxton Bar, along with other less well-known names. Winston Churchill allegedly conceived the idea of the Special Operations Executive there over a glass (or two) of his favourite champagne in the early days of the Second World War, and the operation was started up in three gloomy rooms on the hotel's second floor, with the traitorous Cambridge Spies among its founders. When Stalin's Russia turned to a peacetime enemy in the Cold War that followed, Kim Philby and Guy Burgess handed over intelligence to their Russian counterparts in the dark corners of the hotel, while MI6 man George Blake operated as a Soviet double agent just across the road in Artillery Mansions. Meanwhile, St Ermin's proximity to government offices ensured its continued use by both domestic and foreign secret agents. In this first book on St Ermin's, Peter Matthews, a witness to the intelligence battle for supremacy between MI5, MI6 and the KGB, explores this remarkable true history that is more riveting than any spy novel.
I was ten years old when I came across Boadicea, and she became the first woman to make me realise that the designated future of a girl born in 1950 - to be sweet, domesticated, undemanding and super feminine - was not necessarily the case. Boadicea battled the Romans. Nancy Astor fought in Parliament. Emmeline Pankhurst campaigned for female suffrage. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson became a pioneering physician in a man's profession. Mary Quant revolutionised the fashion industry. Britain has traditionally been defined by its conflicts, its conquests, its men and its monarchs. It's high time that it was defined by its women. In this unique history, Jenni Murray tells the stories of twenty-one women who refused to succumb to the established laws of society, whose lives embodied hope and change. Famous queens, forgotten visionaries, great artists and trailblazing politicians - all pushed back boundaries and revolutionised our world. In Murray's hands their stories are enthralling and beguiling; they have the power to inspire us once again.
Jane Grey's tragedy was her royal blood. As Henry VIII's great-niece she stood perilously close to the throne and from early childhood was used as a pawn in the deadly power game of Tudor politics. Jane was not happy at home - she once famously remarked that she thought herself in hell in her parents' company - and sought consolation in her studies and the uncompromising Protestantism fashionable in the l550s. When it became clear that her cousin Edward VI was dying she was forced into marriage with a son of the powerful John Dudley Duke of Northumberland and confronted with the news that the king had made her his heir. So began her reign as the Nine Days Queen, leading to her imprisonment in the Tower and execution at the age of sixteen. Alison Plowden reveals with insight and skill the complex intensity of the woman behind the myth, the brilliantly gifted child who was developing into a passionate, forceful young woman.
The story of the Princes in the Tower is one of history's most enduring, poignant and romanticised tales. But were the princes really murdered? David Baldwin presents a fresh new approach to the mystery and reveals, for the first time, the true fate of the younger prince, Richard, Duke of York. David Baldwin has searched contemporary documents to unearth the clues that underpin his radical new theory and has visited all the places associated with Richard Plantagenet. In doing so, he has opened up an entirely new line of investigation and exonerated Richard III of the greatest of the crimes imputed to him. Dead princes were a potential embarrassment, but a living prince would have been a real danger and a closely guarded secret, not only in Richard's reign but in the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII.
The UK's vote to leave the European Union shocked the world - not to mention many people in Britain. What it revealed about our country is at least as significant for the future of politics as Brexit itself.Drawing on more than two years of intensive research by Lord Ashcroft Polls, Well, You Did Ask...explains how voters came to make the most momentous political decision of our time - how they saw the choice before them, what they made of the campaign, its personalities, claims and counterclaims - and why they ultimately chose to take the UK out of the EU. As the country sets about negotiating a new relationship with Europe, it also offers a colourful and revealing look at what our continental neighbours think about Britain and the British.To think clearly about what the referendum result means, we first need to understand how it came about. The answers are in this book.
'I delight in this work', wrote the young Victoria shortly after she became Queen. She was an engaging creature, high-spirited and eager to be 'amused'. But her early years were difficult ones. Fatherless from the age of eight months, she was brought up at Kensington Palace in an atmosphere thick with family feuds, backbiting and jealousy - the focus of conflicting ambitions. Though her uncle William IV was anxious to bring her into Court circles, her German mother and the calculating John Conroy were equally determined that she should remain under their control. The 'little Queen', who succeeded to the throne a month after her eighteenth birthday, was greeted by a unanimous chorus of praise and admiration. She embraced the independence of her position and often forced her will on those around her. She met and married Albert, marking the end of her childhood and the beginning of a glorious legend.
Bad Queen Bess? analyses the back and forth between the Elizabethan regime and various Catholic critics, who, from the early 1570s to the early 1590s, sought to characterize that regime as a conspiracy of evil counsel.
Through a genre novel - the libellous secret history - to English political discourse, various (usually anonymous) Catholic authors claimed to reveal to the public what was "really happening" behind the curtain of official lies and disinformation with which the clique of evil counsellors at the heart of the Elizabethan state habitually cloaked their sinister maneuvers. Elements within the regime, centred on William Cecil and his circle, replied to these assaults with their own species of plot talk and libellous secret history, specializing in conspiracy-driven accounts of the Catholic, Marian, and then, latterly, Spanish threats.
Peter Lake presents a series of (mutually constitutive) moves and counter moves, in the course of which the regime's claims to represent a form of public political virtue, to speak for the commonweal and true religion, elicited from certain Catholic critics a simply inverted rhetoric of private political vice, persecution, and tyranny.
The resulting exchanges are read not only as a species of "political thought," but as a way of thinking about politics as process and of distinguishing between "politics" and "religion." They are also analyzed as modes of political communication and pitch-making - involving print, circulating manuscripts, performance, and rumor - and thus as constitutive of an emergent mode of "public politics" and perhaps of a "post reformation public sphere."
While the focus is primarily English, the origins and imbrication of these texts within, and their direct address to, wider European events and audiences is always present. The aim is thus to contribute simultaneously to the political, cultural, intellectual, and religious histories of the period.
Portrait of a City in Two Acts: Lviv, Then and Now The Ukrainian city Lviv's many names (Lviv, Lvov, Lwow, Lemberg, Leopolis) bear witness to its conflicted past - it has, at one time or another, belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Poland, Russia and Germany, and has brought forth numerous famous artists and intellectuals. My Lwow, Jozef Wittlin's short 1946 treatise on the city he left in 1922, is a wistful and lyrical study of an electrifying cosmopolis, told from the other side of the catastrophe of the Second World War. Philippe Sand's essay provides a parallel account of the city as it is today: the cultural capital of Ukraine, its citizens played a key role during the Orange Revolution, and its executive committee declared itself independent of the rule of President Viktor Yanukovych in February 2014. City of Lions includes both old black-and-white photos showing Lviv during the first half of the twentieth century, and new photographs by the award-winning Diana Matar, of the city as it is today.
For perhaps the first time, the author has attempted a holistic account of the monarchy in modern Greece. The reader, on the basis of information about the political behaviour of the Greek and his relationship with authority in every form, is able to understand why this specific type of constitution was chosen. The progress of the monarchy is explored in parallel with the quest for popular legitimization and the constitutional dimension of the question, including the contradictions in the constitutional legislation and the fragility of a democratic constitutional monarchy. Three figures of the Dynasty are discussed and, in the cases of Constantine the First and Frederika, an attempt is made to separate myth from reality. The philanthropic attitude of members of the two dynasties is discussed together with the deep-rooted socio-political dimension of the monarchy. Finally, the author examines the causes of the unravelling of the strong, but uneasy bond between people and monarchy.
Romania since the Second World War offers a political, social and economic history of Romania from 1945 to the present day. It is the first book designed for students to chart the progress of the nation under the communist regime as well as the transition period that followed, providing detailed analysis of the aspects of continuity and change that can be identified over the period as a whole.
The first part of the book looks at the communist regime in depth. It examines how communism took hold and how the elimination of traditional elites took place before discussing the impact of Gheorghiu-Dej and Nicolae Ceausescu, the two most important leaders of the communist era. A further chapter cover the main economic and social changes that took place under the rule of communism. The second part of the book goes on to explore the transition period that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of communism in 1989, with special attention being given to international relations and Romania's drive for inclusion in NATO and the EU.Romania since the Second World War assesses socio-demographic trends across the postwar period using a range of data before concluding with some final thoughts on the nation's development during this time.
There are useful biographical boxes for key figures in Romania's recent history, an extensive bibliography and further reading lists throughout this essential text for those interested in the modern history of Eastern Europe.
Marie Antoinette has always fascinated readers worldwide. Yet perhaps no one knew her better than one of her closest confidantes, Marie Therese, the Princess de Lamballe. The Princess became superintendent of the Queen's household in 1774, and through her relationship with Marie Antoinette, a unique perspective of the lavishness and daily intrigue at Versailles is exposed. Born into the famous House of Savoy in Turin, Italy, Marie Therese was married at the age of seventeen to the Prince de Lamballe; heir to one of the richest fortunes in France. He transported her to the gold-leafed and glittering chandeliered halls of the Chateau de Versailles, where she soon found herself immersed in the political and sexual scandals that surrounded the royal court. As the plotters and planners of Versailles sought, at all costs, to gain the favour of Louis XVI and his Queen, the Princess de Lamballe was there to witness it all. This book reveals the Princess de Lamballe's version of these events and is based on a wide variety of historical sources, helping to capture the waning days and grisly demise of the French monarchy.The story immerses you in a world of titillating sexual rumours, blood-thirsty revolutionaries, and hair-raising escape attempts and is a must read for anyone interested in Marie Antoinette, the origins of the French Revolution, or life in the late 18thCentury.
In the weeks following the 9/11 attacks, the mainstream political elite in Washington, DC acquiesced to every major decision taken by George W. Bush's administration while partisan politics in Congress ceased. As a nation and its representatives rallied around their leader, the diversity of opinions and the role of political opposition seemed suddenly less vital.
A similar unity materialized in the aftermath of the attacks on Charlie Hebdo in January 2015, as millions marched across Paris and the Marseillaise resonated throughout France. Emphasizing France's distinctive struggle against terrorism between 1980 and 2016, Bombs, Bullets and Politicians presents a comparative analysis of how political elites react to terrorist attacks in five western democratic states.
Demonstrating that the magnitude and frequency of terrorist acts determines whether political elites rally around the flag or rail against the government, Christophe Chowanietz formulates hypotheses on the likely impact of various patterns of terrorist actions. He first tests these hypotheses quantitatively in relation to an existing database of incidents, and then qualitatively in the effects that terrorist attacks have had in France. Shedding light on the difference in reactions between mainstream, radical, right-wing, and left-wing parties, Chowanietz argues that terrorism never fails to disrupt the political game.
In an age when the news is dominated by terrorist threats and debates on what to do about them, Bombs, Bullets, and Politicians offers a pertinent analysis of the relationship between terrorism and the conduct of the West's party politics.
In this groundbreaking book, historian Gotz Aly addresses one of modern history's greatest conundrums: How did Hitler win the allegiance of ordinary Germans? The answer is as shocking as it is persuasive. By engaging in a campaign of theft on an almost unimaginable scale-and by channeling the proceeds into generous social programs-Hitler literally 'bought' his people's consent. Drawing on secret files and financial records, Aly shows that while Jews and people of occupied lands suffered crippling taxation, mass looting, enslavement, and destruction, most Germans enjoyed a much-improved standard of living. Buoyed by the millions of packages soldiers sent from the front, Germans also benefited from the systematic plunder of conquered territory and the transfer of Jewish possessions into their homes and pockets. Any qualms were swept away by waves of governmenthandouts, tax breaks, and preferential legislation. Gripping and significant, Hitler's Beneficiaries makes a radically new contribution to our understanding of Nazi aggression, the Holocaust, and the complicity of a people.
The Sturm Abteilung der NSDAP (SA, assault battalion of the Nazi party) - created in August 1920 - were squads of strong arms intended to protect the Nazis' meetings, to provoke disturbance, to break up other parties' meetings, and to attack and assault political opponents as part of a deliberate campaign of intimidation. After 1925 the name Braunhemden (Brownshirts) was also given to its members because of the colour of their uniforms. Under the leadership of Hitler's close political associate, Ernst Rohm, the SA grew to become a huge and radical paramilitary force. This book answers several questions concerning the SA. How did the SA become a national movement? What was the relationship between Rohm and Hitler? What role did the SA play in providing Hitler with the keys to power? After the seizure of power by the Nazis on January 30, 1933, what was the function of the Brownshirts? Why did the brutal and scandalous Ernst Rohm stand in Hitler's way? What became of the SA after the bloody purge of June 1934, the notorious 'Night of the Long Knives'?
The 1916 Easter Rising and its aftermath changed Ireland for ever. The British government's execution of 14 republican rebels transformed a group hitherto perceived as cranks and troublemakers into national heroes. Those who avoided the British firing squads of May 1916 went on to plan a new - and ultimately successful - struggle for Ireland's independence, shaping their country's destiny for the century to come. But what sort of country did they create? And to what extent does post-1916 Ireland measure up to the hopes and aspirations of 'MacDonagh and MacBride / And Connolly and Pearse'? Best-selling historian Tim Pat Coogan offers a strongly personal perspective on the Irish century that followed the Rising - charting a flawed history that is marked as much by complacency, corruption and institutional and clerical abuse, as it is by the sacrifices and nation-building achievements of the Republic's founding fathers.
Authors Antony Cummins and Yoshie Minami worked closely with Dr. Nakashima Atsumi, author of the most comprehensive modern Japanese version of the Shoninki, thus making this English translation the closest to the original scrolls. The information and insights found in this translation are invaluable for understanding the skills, techniques and mentality of the historical shinobi. Whether it involved tips for surviving in the wild, advice on intelligence-gathering techniques, or methods for creating chaos in the enemy camp, this ninja book unveils secrets long lost. Along with its practical applications, this book is an important guide to the mental discipline that ninjas must have to ensure success in accomplishing their mission.
True Path of the Ninja is covers the following topics:
* What is a ninja and what equipment does he need.
* The skills of infiltration and information gathering.
* How to distrupt and distract the enemy.
* How to be mentally prepared to carry out ninja misions
In addition to the translation of the Shoninki, this book also includes the first written record of the oral tradition "Defense Against a Ninja" taught by Otake Risuke, the revered sensei of the legendary Katori Shinto Ryu school of swordsmanship. Sensei reveals for the first time these ancient and traditional teachings on how the samurai can protect himself from the cunning wiles of a ninja.
From its birth in the late 1990s as the jihadist dream of terrorist leader Abu Musab al Zarqawi, the Islamic State (known by a variety of names, including ISIS, ISIL, and al Qaeda in Iraq) has grown into a massive enterprise, redrawing national borders across the Middle East and subjecting an area larger than the United Kingdom to its own vicious brand of Sharia law.
In ISIS: The Terror Nation, world-renowned terrorism expert Loretta Napoleoni takes us beyond the headlines, demonstrating that while Western media portrays the Islamic State as little more than a gang of thugs on a winning streak, the organization is proposing a new model for nation building. Waging a traditional war of conquest to carve out the 21st-century version of the original Caliphate, IS uses modern technology to recruit and fundraise while engaging the local population in the day-to-day running of the new state.
Rising from the ashes of failing jihadist enterprises, the Islamic State has shown a deep understanding of Middle Eastern politics, fully exploiting proxy war and shell-state tactics. This is not another terrorist network but a formidable enemy in tune with the new modernity of the current world disorder. As Napoleoni writes, "Ignoring these facts is more than misleading and superficial, it is dangerous. 'Know your enemy' remains the most important adage in the fight against terrorism."
For more than a century successive US and UK governments have sought to thwart nationalist, socialist and pro-democracy movements in the Middle East. Through the Cold War, the 'War on Terror' and the present era defined by the Islamic State, the Western powers have repeatedly manipulated the region's most powerful actors to ensure the security of their own interests and, in doing so, have given rise to religious politics, sectarian war, bloody counter-revolutions and now one of the most brutal incarnations of Islamic extremism ever seen. This is the utterly compelling, systematic dissection of Western interference in the Middle East. Christopher Davidson exposes the dark side of our foreign policy - dragging many disturbing facts out into the light for the first time. Most shocking for us today is his assertion that US intelligence agencies continue to regard the Islamic State, like al-Qaeda before it, as a strategic but volatile asset to be wielded against their enemies. Provocative, alarming and unrelenting, Shadow Wars demands to be read - now.
In this fully revised third edition, Kirsten E.Schulze brings us to a new understanding of the causes, course and consequences of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Schulze analyses the dynamics of the violence and explores the numerous attempts at resolving the conflict. She traces the origins of the conflict from their first intellectual roots in the 19th century through to the creation of the state of Israel in 1948 and the on-going, second Palestinian uprising and assesses why, in the cases of Israel-Egypt in 1978 and Israel-Jordan in 1994, negotiations succeeded in bringing about a lasting peace and why, in the cases of Israel, and the Palestinians, Syria and Lebanon, they failed to do so.
Written in a clear and accessible style, this fully updated second edition:
* Has a new section on the Gaza Wars since 2006
* Has a new section on the Arab Spring and the implications for Israel
* Comes up to date with the attempts at peace.
With a diverse collection of documents and a Chronology, Glossary, Guide to Further Reading, and a Who's Who summarizing the careers and contributions of the main figures, this book is absolutely vital to understanding the current Israeli-Palestinian violence and its world-wide significance.
In 1986, when this autobiography opens, the author is a typical fourteen-year-old boy in Asyut in Upper Egypt. Attracted at first by the image of a radical Islamist group as strong Muslims, his involvement develops until he finds himself deeply committed to its beliefs and implicated in its activities. This ends when, as he leaves the university following a demonstration, he is arrested. Prison, a return to life on the outside, and attending Cairo University all lead to Khaled al-Berry's eventual alienation from radical Islam. This book opens a window onto the mind of an extremist who turns out to be disarmingly like many other clever adolescents, and bears witness to a history with whose reverberations we continue to live. It also serves as an intelligent and critical guide for the reader to the movement's unfamiliar debates and preoccupations, motives and intentions. Fluently written, intellectually gripping, exciting, and often funny, Life Is More Beautiful than Paradise provides a vital key to the understanding of a world that is both a source of fear and a magnet of curiosity for the west.
Numerous wheeled armoured fighting vehicles have seen service in the US armed forces on and off for over 80 years. There have been various changes of policy and twice, after the Second World War and Vietnam, they went out of favour but their use is now well established. This well researched and superbly illustrated book describes all the different types and variants since the first M1 was ordered in 1931. The M8 armoured car was widely used during World War Two but it was not until Vietnam that further wheeled AFVs came into service, notably the M706 armoured car. After a lull the US Marine Corps adopted the Light Armoured Vehicle (LAV) in 1983. The US Army first used armoured Humvees in 1994 and variants remain in service (M1141 and M1116). Other types today include the Guardian (M1117) and the Army version of the LAV names the 'Stryker'. To meet the operational requirements of Iraq and Afghanistan the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicle (MRAP) was ordered in bulk from 2007.
In The Dutch Moment, Wim Klooster shows how the Dutch built and eventually lost an Atlantic empire that stretched from the homeland in the United Provinces to the Hudson River and from Brazil and the Caribbean to the African Gold Coast. The fleets and armies that fought for the Dutch in the decades-long war against Spain included numerous foreigners, largely drawn from countries in northwestern Europe. Likewise, many settlers of Dutch colonies were born in other parts of Europe or the New World. The Dutch would not have been able to achieve military victories without the native alliances they carefully cultivated. Indeed, the Dutch Atlantic was quintessentially interimperial, multinational, and multiracial. At the same time, it was an empire entirely designed to benefit the United Provinces.
The pivotal colony in the Dutch Atlantic was Brazil, half of which was conquered by the Dutch West India Company. Its brief lifespan notwithstanding, Dutch Brazil (1630'Â?1654) had a lasting impact on the Atlantic world. The scope of Dutch warfare in Brazil is hard to overestimate'this was the largest interimperial conflict of the seventeenth-century Atlantic. Brazil launched the Dutch into the transatlantic slave trade, a business they soon dominated. At the same time, Dutch Brazil paved the way for a Jewish life in freedom in the Americas after the first American synagogues opened their doors in Recife. In the end, the entire colony eventually reverted to Portuguese rule, in part because Dutch soldiers, plagued by perennial poverty, famine, and misery, refused to take up arms. As they did elsewhere, the Dutch lost a crucial colony because of the empire's systematic neglect of the very soldiers on whom its defenses rested.
After the loss of Brazil and, ten years later, New Netherland, the Dutch scaled back their political ambitions in the Atlantic world. Their American colonies barely survived wars with England and France. As the imperial dimension waned, the interimperial dimension gained strength. Dutch commerce with residents of foreign empires thrived in a process of constant adaptation to foreign settlers' needs and mercantilist obstacles.
The Fall of Singapore in February 1942 was arguably the greatest disaster suffered by the British Empire. Between 1923 and 1938, the Singapore naval base had been upgraded with some of the largest coast guns ever installed. The guns' design and incorrect siting have since been blamed for the humiliating debacle. The Fatal Fortress traces the history of Singapore's fortifications and guns from the city's foundation in 1819 to the demise of coast artillery in the British Army in 1953. It also follows the development of artillery through the Victorian era of muzzle-loading guns to the introduction of the large breech-loading guns of the twentieth century. The author argues that it was not the siting of the guns that brought about the fall of Singapore, but an overall failure in command and control and a lack of suitable ammunition. The book is illustrated with a large number of photographs, drawings and plans, and contains a gazetteer describing all the batteries and forts, both existing and demolished. There is also an annex giving the details of the guns that were installed in Singapore.
Counter Jihad is a sweeping account of America's military campaigns in the Islamic world. Revising our understanding of what was once known as the War on Terror, it provides a retrospective on the extraordinary series of conflicts that saw the United States deploy more than two and a half million men and women to fight in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria.
Brian Glyn Williams traces these unfolding wars from their origins in the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan through U.S. Central Command's ongoing campaign to degrade and destroy the hybrid terrorist group known as ISIS. Williams takes readers on a journey beginning with the 2001 U.S. overthrow of the Taliban, to the toppling of Saddam Hussein, to the unexpected emergence of the notorious ISIS Caliphate in the Iraqi lands that the United States once occupied.
Counter Jihad is the first history of America's military operations against radical Islamists, from the Taliban-controlled Hindu Kush Mountains of Afghanistan, to the Sunni Triangle of Iraq, to ISIS's headquarters in the deserts of central Syria, giving both generalists and specialists an overview of events that were followed by millions but understood by few.
Williams provides the missing historical context for the rise of the terror group ISIS out of the ashes of Saddam Hussein's secular Baathist Iraq, arguing that it is only by carefully exploring the recent past can we understand how this jihadist group came to conquer an area larger than Britain and spread havoc from Syria to Paris to San Bernardino.
The tumultuous and heartbreaking life of a world-famous model whose riveting story of beauty, fame, passion, murder, and madness in the Gilded Age captivated a nation.
As America was stepping into the modern era, one great beauty became the artist’s model of choice. Her perfect form became the emblem of the Gilded Age and appears on the greatest monuments of New York and the nation. Supermodel, actress, icon her beauty paved the way for a life of glamour, passion, and ultimately tragedy. She dated the millionaires of the fashionable Newport colony, became the first American movie star ever to appear naked in a film, but her promising film career collapsed, her doctor fell in love with her and killed his own wife, and on her fortieth birthday, her mother committed her to an insane asylum.
She remained there until her death in 1996 at the age of 104 and is now buried in an unmarked grave. Her name is Audrey Munson. Many readers will recognize Audrey Munson, and have walked by her in the street, without even knowing her name. She stands atop New York’s Municipal Building. She sits as “Miss Manhattan” and “Miss Brooklyn” outside the Brooklyn Museum, is immortalized on the Manhattan Bridge, the Frick Mansion, the New York Public Library, and the Pulitzer Fountain outside the Plaza Hotel.
In gold, bronze, and stone, she still graces bridges, skyscrapers, fountains, churches, monuments, and public buildings across the nation, from Jacksonville to San Francisco, from Atlanta to the Wisconsin state capitol. From James Bone, the former New York Bureau Chief of The Times of London, this brilliantly reported investigative biography reveals, for the first time, the riveting truth of the forgotten life of an iconic beauty.
Lyndon Johnson and Mac Wallace crossed paths only briefly; but Wallace's life, especially one violent episode and its intricate aftermath, illuminates the dark side of our 36th president.
Perhaps no president has a more ambiguous reputation than LBJ. A brilliant tactician, he maneuvered colleagues and turned bills into law better than anyone. But he was trailed by a legacy of underhanded dealings, from his stolen Senate election in 1948 to kickbacks he artfully concealed from deals engineered with Texas wheeler-dealer Billie Sol Estes and defense contractors like his longtime supporter Brown & Root. On the verge of investigation, Johnson was reprieved when he became president upon JFK's assassination. Among the remaining mysteries has been LBJ's relationship to Mac Wallace who, in 1951, shot a Texas man having an affair with LBJ's loose-cannon sister Josefa, also Wallace's lover. When arrested, Wallace cooly said I work for Johnson.I need to get back to Washington. Charged with murder, he was overnight defended by LBJ's powerful lawyer John Cofer, and though convicted, amazingly received a suspended sentence. He then got high-security clearance from LBJ friend and defense contractor D.H. Byrd, which the Office of Naval Intelligence tried to revoke for 11 years without success.
Using crucial Life magazine and Naval Intelligence files and the unredacted FBI files on Mac Wallace, never before utilized by others, investigative writer Joan Mellen skillfully connects these two disparate Texas lives and lends stark credence to the dark side of Lyndon Johnson that has largely gone unsubstantiated.
From very early on in his career, John F. Kennedy’s allure was more akin to a movie star than a presidential candidate. Why were Americans so attracted to Kennedy in the late 1950s and early 1960s - his glamorous image, good looks, cool style, tough-minded rhetoric, and sex appeal?
As Steve Watts argues, JFK was tailor made for the cultural atmosphere of his time. He benefited from a crisis of manhood that had welled up in postwar America when men had become ensnared by bureaucracy, softened by suburban comfort, and emasculated by a generation of newly-aggressive women. Kennedy appeared to revive the modern American man as youthful and vigorous, masculine and athletic, and a sexual conquistador. His cultural crusade involved other prominent figures, including Frank Sinatra, Norman Mailer, Ian Fleming, Hugh Hefner, Ben Bradlee, Kirk Douglas, and Tony Curtis, who collectively symbolized masculine regeneration.
This is not just another standard biography of the youthful president. By examining Kennedy in the context of certain books, movies, social critiques, music, and cultural discussions that framed his ascendancy, Watts shows us the excitement and sense of possibility, the optimism and aspirations, that accompanied the dawn of a new age in America.
A surprising work of narrative history and detection that illuminates one of the most daring and long-forgotten heroes of the Civil War.
Independence Day, 1861. The schooner S. J. Waring sets sail from New York on a routine voyage to South America. Seventeen days later, it limps back into New York’s frenzied harbor with the ship's black steward, William Tillman, at the helm. While the story of that ill-fated voyage is one of the most harrowing tales of captivity and survival on the high seas, it has, almost unbelievably, been lost to history.
Now reclaiming Tillman as the real American hero he was, historian Brian McGinty dramatically returns readers to that riotous, explosive summer of 1861, when the country was tearing apart at the seams and the Union army was in near shambles following a humiliating defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run. Desperate for good news, the North was soon riveted by reports of an incident that occurred a few hundred miles off the coast of New York, where the Waring had been overtaken by a marauding crew of Confederate privateers.
While the white sailors became chummy with their Southern captors, free black man William Tillman was perfectly aware of the fate that awaited him in the ruthless, slave-filled ports south of the Mason-Dixon Line. Stealthily biding his time until a moonlit night nine days after the capture, Tillman single-handedly killed three officers of the privateer crew, then took the wheel and pointed it home. Yet, with no experience as a navigator, only one other helper, and a war-torn Atlantic seaboard to contend with, his struggle had just begun.
It took five perilous days at sea all thrillingly recounted here before the Waring returned to New York Harbor, where the story of Tillman's shipboard courage became such a tabloid sensation that he was not only put on the bill of Barnum’s American Museum but also proclaimed to be the "first hero" of the Civil War. As McGinty evocatively shows, however, in the horrors of the war then engulfing the nation, memories of his heroism even of his identity were all but lost to history.
As such, The Rest I Will Kill becomes a thrilling and historically significant work, as well as an extraordinary journey that recounts how a free black man was able to defy efforts to make him a slave and become an unlikely glimmer of hope for a disheartened Union army in the war-battered North.
When Thomas Jefferson became president in 1801, America was deeply in debt, with its economy and dignity under attack. Pirates from North Africa's Barbary Coast routinely captured American merchant ships and held the sailors as slaves, demanding ransom and tribute payments far beyond what the new country could afford. For fifteen years, America had tried to work with the four Muslim powers (Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, and Morocco) driving the piracy, but negotiation proved impossible. Realizing it was time to stand up to the intimidation, Jefferson decided to move beyond diplomacy. He sent the U.S. Navy and Marines to blockade Tripoli launching the Barbary Wars and beginning America's journey toward future superpower status. Few today remember these men and other heroes who inspired the Marine Corps hymn: From the Halls of Montezuma to the Shores of Tripoli, we fight our country's battles in the air, on land and sea. Thomas Jefferson and the Tripoli Pirates recaptures this forgotten war that changed American history with a real-life drama of intrigue, bravery, and battle on the high seas.
In recent years, the world has learned just what is required to bravely serve America through SEAL Team Six. Now, for the first time, we hear from their commander.
As a 23-year veteran of the United States Navy SEAL Teams, Ryan Zinke received two Bronze Stars for battle valor, and eventually rose to command the elite members of SEAL Team Six. During his career, Zinke trained and commanded many of the men who would one day run the covert operations to hunt down Osama Bin Laden and save Captain Phillips (Maersk Alabama). He also served as mentor to now famous SEALs Marcus Luttrell (Lone Survivor) and Chris Kyle (American Sniper).
When Zinke signs with the U.S. Navy he turns his sights on joining the ranks of the most elite fighting force, the SEALs. He eventually reaches the top of the SEAL Teams as an assault team commander at SEAL Team Six. Zinke shares what it takes to train and motivate the most celebrated group of warriors on earth and then send them into harm’s way. Through it, he shares his proven problem-solving approach: Situation, Mission, Execution, Command and Control, Logistics.
American Commander also covers Zinke’s experience in running for Montana’s sole seat in the United States Congress. Zinke’s passion for his country shines as he conveys his vision to revitalize American exceptionalism. Scott McEwen and Ryan Zinke take readers behind the scenes and into the heart of America’s most-feared fighting force. American Commander will inspire a new generation of leaders charged with restoring a bright future for our children’s children.
The smash-hit musical Hamilton presents its central character as a truth-telling immigrant boot-strapper who used his extraordinary intelligence to make good--but what was he really like? Let the man himself, a prolific and extremely effective writer, tell his story in his own words.
Organised chronologically, this collection of Alexander Hamilton's personal letters, business and governmental correspondence, and excerpts from his most important published writings (including the Federalist Papers) gives readers first-hand insight into this highly influential founding father who engineered the ratification of the US Constitution, created the United States' financial system, and established friendly trade relations with Britain.
The book includes love letters to Elizabeth Schuyler, who became his wife, and correspondence with his friend-turned-nemesis, Aaron Burr, which led to the duel in Weehawken that ended Hamilton's life at the age of 47. Also included are responses from some of his correspondents that give a 360-degree view of the man so esteemed by his protector and friend, George Washington, but reviled by others, including Washington's successor as president, John Adams.
Illustrated with 50 illustrations, drawings, document facsimiles and more, the text is accompanied throughout by explanatory annotations from editor Dan Tucker who also provides introductions to each chapter and a preface.
Through the shadowy persona of Deep Throat, FBI official Mark Felt became as famous as the Watergate scandal his leaks helped uncover.
Best known through Hal Holbrook's portrayal in the film version of Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein's All the President's Men, Felt was regarded for decades as a conscientious but highly secretive whistleblower who shunned the limelight. Yet even after he finally revealed his identity in 2005, questions about his true motivations persisted.
Max Holland has found the missing piece of that Deep Throat puzzle - one that's been hidden in plain sight all along. He reveals for the first time in detail what truly motivated the FBI's number-two executive to become the most fabled secret source in American history. In the process, he directly challenges Felt's own explanations while also demolishing the legend fostered by Woodward and Bernstein's bestselling account.
Holland critiques all the theories of Felt's motivation that have circulated over the years, including notions that Felt had been genuinely upset by White House law-breaking or had tried to defend and insulate the FBI from the machinations of President Nixon and his Watergate henchmen. And, while acknowledging that Woodward finally disowned the principled whistleblower image of Felt in The Secret Man, Holland shows why that famed journalist's latest explanation still falls short of the truth.
Holland showcases the many twists and turns to Felt's story that are not widely known, revealing not a selfless official acting out of altruistic patriotism, but rather a career bureaucrat with his own very private agenda. Drawing on new interviews and oral histories, old and just-released FBI Watergate files, papers of the Watergate Special Prosecution Force, presidential tape recordings, and Woodward and Bernstein's Watergate-related papers, he sheds important new light on both Felt's motivations and the complex and often problematic relationship between the press and government officials.
Fast-paced and scrupulously fact-checked, Leak resolves the mystery residing at the heart of Mark Felt's actions. By doing so, it radically revises our understanding of America's most famous presidential scandal.
The riveting life of Alexander Hamilton, an illegitimate, largely self-taught orphan from the Caribbean who overcame all the odds to become George Washington's aide-de-camp and the first Treasury Secretary of the United States. Few figures in American history have been more hotly debated than Alexander Hamilton. In this masterful work, Chernow shows how the political and economic greatness of America today is the result of Hamilton's willingness to champion ideas that were often wildly disputed during his time. He charts his titanic feuds with Jefferson, Adams, Madison, Monroe and Burr; his highly public affair with Maria Reynolds; his loving marriage to his loyal wife Eliza; and the famous and mysterious duel with Aaron Burr that led to his death in July 1804. The book was adapted into a hugely successful Broadway musical - nominated for a record 16 Tony awards - which opens in London's West End in September 2017.
After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840 the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the site of Auckland as his new capital and named it after George Eden, Earl of Auckland, who was then Viceroy of India. He also named the hill with the best view of the harbour, Maungawhau, Mount Eden.
Since that time, the city has thrived, driven by a variety of businesses including a gold rush. Auckland Then and Now pairs up vintage streetscenes from the Victorian era through to the 1950s, to show how the city has changed in over 150 years of development.
Sites include: The Ferry Building, Viaduct Basin, Queen Street, Victoria Street, the Town Hall, Karangahape Road, Albert Park, War Memorial, Newmarket, Mount Eden, One Tree Hill, Mission Bay, St. Heliers, Harbour Bridge, Devonport and Takapuna Beach.
Joseph Stalin began life as a frail child, with an abusive father and an inferiority complex. This triggered an early desire for greatness and respect that would eventually turn the young Bolshevik idealist into one of the most ruthless dictators in modern history. Like his contemporary, Adolf Hitler, Stalin was responsible for millions of deaths and inflicted barbaric cruelty on the Soviet people. But while Hitler is readily portrayed as a monster, Stalin has not been subjected to quite the same level of vitriol. In Stalin: A Beginner's Guide, renowned historian Abraham Ascher analyses new and old sources, separating truths from falsehoods to present an unvarnished portrait of the Soviet leader.
In September 1941, two and a half months after the Nazis invaded the Soviet Union, the German Wehrmacht encircled Leningrad. Cut off from the rest of Russia, the city remained blockaded for 872 days, at a cost of almost a million civilian lives, making it one of the longest and deadliest sieges in modern history.
The War Within chronicles the Leningrad blockade from the perspective of those who endured the unendurable. Drawing on 125 unpublished diaries written by individuals from all walks of Soviet life, Alexis Peri tells the tragic story of how citizens struggled to make sense of a world collapsing around them. Residents recorded in intimate detail the toll taken on minds and bodies by starvation, bombardment, and disease. For many, diary writing became instrumental to survival'a tangible reminder of their humanity. The journals also reveal that Leningraders began to reexamine Soviet life and ideology from new, often critical perspectives.
Leningrad's party organization encouraged diary writing, hoping the texts would guide future histories of this epic battle. But in a bitter twist, the diarists became victims not only of Hitler but also of Stalin. The city's isolation from Moscow made it politically suspect. When the blockade was lifted in 1944, Kremlin officials censored publications describing the ordeal and arrested hundreds of Leningrad's wartime leaders. Many were executed. Diaries'now dangerous to their authors'were concealed in homes, shelved in archives, and forgotten. The War Within recovers these lost narratives, shedding light on one of World War II's darkest episodes.
One hundred years after the Russian Revolution the Soviet Union remains the most extraordinary, yet tragic, attempt to create a society beyond capitalism. Yet its history was one that for a long time proved impossible to write. In The Soviet Century, Moshe Lewin follows this history in all its complexity, guiding us through the inner workings of a system which is still barely understood. In the process he overturns widely held beliefs about the USSR's leaders, the State-Party system and the powerful Soviet bureaucracy. Departing from a simple linear history, The Soviet Century traces all the continuities and ruptures that led from the founding revolution of October 1917 to the final collapse of the late 1980s and early 1990s, passing through the Stalinist dictatorship, the impossible reforms of the Khrushchev years and the glasnost and perestroika policies of Gorbachev.
'I do feel the loss of my two boys, they was my all ...' wrote grieving father Ernest Watts following the death of his two sons.
Like thousands of Australians during World War I, Ernest Watts received his tragic news through the office known as 'Base Records'. This letter was just one in a series of correspondence that lasted the duration of the war and well into the post-war period. Every letter was answered with patience and courtesy and every response carried the same signature: J.M. Lean.
The Man who Carried the Nation's Grief describes the extraordinary work of James Lean, whose office at times received over 100 letters a day from distressed families. The letters selected by author Carol Rosenhain are quoted verbatim in all their rawness, the grief, anger and disbelief of the writer signifying wounds that would take years to heal while others never would. Like those of Ernest Watts, the letters often form part of a chain of correspondence that lasted well beyond the Armistice of 1918. For one shattered father, the fate of his missing boy would never be resolved, his son's final resting place only discovered in Pheasant Wood almost a century after he met his death.
Given his crucial role as the link between anxious families and the bureaucracy of the AIF, James Lean's remarkable work is a surprising omission from the vast body of World War I literature. Carol Rosenhain's book rectifies this omission with a portrait of Lean himself and the grim task at which he excelled. This is a book that describes
Plunge into the action, and marvel at ten of the best and best-known World War II fighter aircraft!
There's no shortage of fantastic archival aviation photography from World War II. But photos from the period fall short in three major categories: the vast majority are black and white, most were composed under duress, and very few capture moments that have since entered the written record of aerial conflict.
Award-winning artist Jim Laurier rectifies the situation in this stunning, large-format, hardcover book celebrating World War II's top fighter aircraft. From design and weaponry to the daring tales of the pilots who flew the aircraft,Fighter! is a unique and lavishly presented look at World War II aviation through the imagination of military aviation's top artist and illustrator. The book presents chapters about ten legendary aircraft, each featuring paintings of the fighter in action, multi-view color plates (including cockpits), archival photography for context, and the stories behind the planes' design and service.
While each of Laurier's paintings and illustrations are breathtaking and technically exacting, the stories highlight key moments in battle and the nostalgia surrounding these fighters and their pilots, offering anecdotes that enhance the art's power. A complete appendix includes key statistics for each aircraft. A warbird history like no other,Fighter! brings the romance of aerial combat, the power of agile takeoffs, and the fury of deadly weapons alive on the page.
A compendium of the 100 most decisive events, both on and off the battlefield, that shaped the course of the conflict between 1939 and 1945.
The bloodiest conflict in human history was not decided by the actions of an enlightened few. Instead, it played out as countless acts of heroism, on battlefields across the planet, in events whose outcomes were anything but certain. Within this history of individual sacrifice, it is possible to identify landmark events that shifted the momentum of World War II, from the early gains of Hitler's Axis powers to the growing Allied might of the later years.
One Hundred Events That Shaped World War II tells the story of the war. Taking into account social, economic, technological and political factors, it presents the people involved and identifies the strategic masterstrokes, as well as blunders, that determined the ultimate course of victory.
Tobruk was one of the greatest Allied victories - and one of the worst Allied defeats - of the Second World War. The 1942 fiasco rocked the very foundation of Winston Churchill's premiership. It revived the flagging hopes of the German people and fanned the flames of Arab unrest. Furthering Rommel's ascendency and souring relations within the British Commonwealth, it marked a turning point in Anglo-American relations and the fight against the Third Reich. Utilising a wealth of primary and secondary sources Tobruk 1942 examines why the fortress fell to Rommel's Axis forces in just 24 hours when it held out against repeated attacks the previous year. Comparing the 1941 and 1942 battles, this book presents a new perspective on Tobruk - the isolated Libyan fortress, and symbol of Allied freedom, which for a period in the war captured the world's attention.
Popular uprisings in Poland and Hungary shake Moscow's hold on its eastern European empire. Across the American South, and in the Union of South Africa, black people risk their livelihoods, and their lives, in the struggle to dismantle institutionalised white supremacy and secure first-class citizenship. France and Britain, already battling anti-colonial insurgencies in Algeria and Cyprus, now face the humiliation of Suez. Meanwhile, in Cuba, Fidel Castro and his band of rebels take to the Sierra Maestra to plot the overthrow of a dictator...1956 was one of the most remarkable years of the twentieth century. All across the globe, ordinary people spoke out, filled the streets and city squares, and took up arms in an attempt to win their freedom. In response to these unprecedented challenges to their authority, those in power fought back, in a desperate bid to shore up their position. It was an epic contest, and one which made 1956 - like 1789 and 1848 - a year that changed our world.
At the outbreak of World War I Austria-Hungary had four modern light cruisers and twenty modern destroyers at their disposal, constructed in the early 20th century to defend their growing overseas interests. It was these fast light vessels, not the fleet's prized battleships, which saw most action during the war; from the bombardment of enemy batteries during the Montenegrin Campaign to their victory over the Allied fleet at the Battle of the Strait of Otranto in 1917. Using specially-commissioned artwork author Ryan Noppen examines the cruisers and destroyers that the Austro-Hungarian Empire had at their disposal during World War I. His study covers their design and development, with thrilling combat reports highlighting the way in which the strategies evolved throughout the Adriatic Campaign.
Official companion to the Ken Burns film premiering September 20, 2016, on PBS tells the little-known story of the Sharps, an otherwise ordinary couple whose faith and commitment to social justice inspired them to undertake dangerous rescue and relief missions across war-torn Europe, saving the lives of countless refugees, political dissidents, and Jews on the eve of World War II.
In 1939, Rev. Waitstill Sharp, a young Unitarian minister, and his wife, Martha, a social worker, accepted a mission from the American Unitarian Association: they were to leave their home and young children in Wellesley, Massachusetts, and travel to Prague, Czechoslovakia, to help address the mounting refugee crisis. Armed with only $40,000, the Sharps quickly learned the art of spy craft and covertly sheltered political dissidents and Jews, and helped them escape the Nazis. After narrowly avoiding the Gestapo themselves, the Sharps returned to Europe in 1940 as representatives of the newly formed Unitarian Service Committee and continued their relief efforts in Vichy France.
This compulsively readable true story offers readers a rare glimpse at high-stakes international relief efforts during WWII. "Defying the Nazis" is a fascinating portrait of resistance as told through the story of one courageous couple.
Objects are the way in which we can touch the past, and they play a living role in history today. Through them, we can understand the experience of men and women during the First World War. Surviving objects from the Great War are diverse: posters and ephemera, personal mementos and military artefacts, archaeological finds and public monuments, deadly weapons and tanks, aircraft and ships. Showcased in this best-selling book these fascinating objects bring a fresh perspective to the tragedy and triumph of the 'war to end all wars' across the world.
This volume examines the history, organization and battles of the Polish Army during the 1939 campaign.The information will include details on the uniforms, equipment, and vehicles of the Polish Army in the early and often misunderstood campaign of the war.
A comprehensive history with descriptions of the world's most significant aircraft employed as eyes in the sky. For as long as there has been sustained heavier-than-air human flight, airplanes have been used to gather information about our adversaries. Less than a decade after the Wright Brothers flew at Kitty Hawk, Italian pilots were keeping tabs on Turkish foes in Libya. Today, aircraft with specialized designs and sensory equipment still cruise the skies, spying out secrets in the never-ending quest for an upper hand.
Spyplanes tackles the sprawling legacy of manned aerial reconnaissance, from hot air balloons to cloth-and-wood biplanes puttering over the Western Front, and on through every major world conflict, culminating with spyplanes cruising at supersonic speeds 85,000 feet above the Earth's surface. Authors Norman Polmar and John Bessette offer a concise yet comprehensive overview history of aerial recon, exploring considerations such as spyplanes in military doctrine, events like the Cuban Missile Crisis and the downing of Francis Gary Powers' U-2, the 1992 Open Skies Treaty, and the USAF's Big Safari program.
Polmar and Bessette, along with a roster of respected aviation journalists, also profile 70 renowned fixed-wing spyplanes from World I right up to the still-conceptual hypersonic SR-72. The authors examine the design, development, and service history of each aircraft, and offer images and specification boxes that detail vital stats for each. Included are purpose-built spyplanes, as well as legendary fighters and bombers that have been retrofitted for the purpose.
In addition, the authors feature preliminary chapters discussing the history of aerial surveillance and a host of sidebars that explore considerations such as spyplanes in military doctrine, events like the Cuban missile crisis and the downing of Francis Gary Powers' U-2, the 1992 Open Skies Treaty, and the USAF's current Big Safari program.
From prop-driven to jet-powered aircraft, this is the ultimate history and reference to those eyes in the skies that have added mind-bending technologies, not to mention an element of intrigue, to military aviation for more than a century.
During World War II, the lives of millions of Americans lay precariously in the hands of a few brilliant scientists who raced to develop the first weapon of mass destruction. Elected officials gave the scientists free rein in the Manhattan Project without understanding the complexities and dangers involved in splitting the atom. The Manhattan Project was the first example of a new type of choice for congressmen, presidents, and other government officials: life and death on a national scale. From that moment, our government began fashioning public policy for issues of scientific development, discoveries, and inventions that could secure or threaten our existence and our future. But those same men and women had no training in such fields, did not understand the ramifications of the research, and relied on incomplete information to form potentially life-changing decisions. Through the story of the Manhattan Project, Neil J. Sullivan asks by what criteria the people in charge at the time made such critical decisions. He also ponders how similar judgments are reached today with similar incomprehension from those at the top as our society dives down the potential rabbit hole of bioengineering, nanotechnology, and scientific developments yet to come.
Spices are rare things, at once familiar and exotic, comforting us in favourite dishes while evoking far-flung countries, Arabian souks, trade winds, colonial conquests and vast fortunes. From anise to zedoary, The Book of Spice introduces us to their properties, both medical and magical, and the fascinating stories that lie behind both kitchen staples and esoteric luxuries. John O'Connell's bite-size chapters combine insights on history and art, religion and medicine, culture and science, richly seasoned with anecdotes and recipes. Discover why Cleopatra bathed in saffron and mare's milk, why wormwood-laced absinthe caused eighteenth-century drinkers to hallucinate and how cloves harvested in remote Indonesian islands found their way into a kitchen in ancient Syria. Almost every kitchen contains a tin of cloves or a stick of cinnamon, almost every dish a pinch of something, whether chilli or cumin. Combining an extraordinary amount of research with a lifelong passion, this is culinary history at its most appetising. The Book of Spice is an invaluable reference and an entertaining read.
Completely revised and expanded since its French publication, Armoured Trains: An Illustrated Encyclopedia 1826-2016 is the first English-language edition of the authoritative work on the subject.
Military forces around the world were quick to see the advantages of railways in warfare, whether for the rapid deployment of men or the movement of heavy equipment like artillery. From this realization, it was a short step to making the train a potent weapon in its own right-a mobile fort or a battleship on rails. Armed and armored, they became the first practical self-propelled war machines. As demonstrated in the American Civil War, these trains were able to make a significant contribution to battlefield success.
Thereafter, almost every belligerent nation with a railway system made some use of armored rolling stock, ranging from low-intensity colonial policing to the massive employment of armored trains during the Russian Civil War. Although they were somewhat eclipsed as frontline weapons by the development of the tank and other armored fighting vehicles, armored trains retained a role as late as the civil wars in the former republic of Yugoslavia.
This truly encyclopedic book covers, country by country, the range of fighting equipment that rode the rails over nearly two centuries. While this book outlines the place of armored trains in the evolution of warfare, it concentrates on details of their design through a vast array of photographs and the author's meticulous drawings.